KINDAI UNIVERSITY


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Toru Sawai

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FacultyDepartment of Mechanical Engineering / Graduate School of Science and Engineering Research / Research Institute of Bio-coke
PositionProfessor
Degree
Commentator Guidehttps://www.kindai.ac.jp/meikan/927-sawai-tooru.html
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Last Updated :2019/12/09

Education and Career

Education

  •  - 1985 , Osaka University, Graduate School, Division of Engineering
  •  - 1983 , Osaka University, Faculty of Engineering

Academic & Professional Experience

  •   1985 ,  - 1986 , Research Assistant, Takamatsu National College of Technology
  •   1986 ,  - 1995 , Lecturer, Takamatsu National College of Technology
  •   1995 ,  - 1997 , Associate Professor, Takamatsu National College of Technology
  •   1997 ,  - 2005 , Associate Professor, Kinki University
  •   2005 ,  - 現在, Professor, Kinki University

Research Activities

Research Areas

  • Mechanical engineering, Thermal engineering
  • Integrated engineering, Energy engineering

Research Interests

  • Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow, Biomass Energy

Published Papers

  • Reforming of dimension and energy properties of chip fuel by pyrolysis treatment, SAWAI Toru, Juornal of JSEM, 19(3), Sep. 2019 , Refereed
  • Formulation to Inspect Qualities of Pyrolyzed Wood Pellets using CIELAB Color Parameters, Toru SAWAI, Ichiro KATAYAMA, Tamio IDA, Advanced Experimetal Mechanics, 3, 65 - 71, Aug. 2018 , Refereed
  • Estimation of energy properties of torrefied Japanese cedar with colorimetric values, Toru SAWAI, Ichiro KATAYAMA, Tamio IDA, Hiroki IMAMURA, Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Mechanical Engineering Journal, 4(1), Feb. 2017 , Refereed
  • Optimization Method of a Japanese Keypad Location for Flick Input on a Smartphone, Noriyasu HIROKAWA・Hiroya IWAMOTO・Masataka NAKAYAMA・Tadashi SHIBUE・Takashi HAYAMI・Toru SAWAI・Mitsushi OHMASA, Journal of JSEM, 15, s125 - s131, Jul. 2015 , Refereed
  • Flow Characteristics of Thermo-Fluid Wood Powder by Hot Extrusion Process, Toru SAWAI・Hiroki IMAMURA・Noriyasu HIROKAWA・Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Journal of JSEM, 15, s7 - s14, Jul. 2015 , Refereed
  • Thermo-Fluid Phenomena of Torrefied Woody Biomass and Optimum Molding Condition of Torrefied Wood Briquette, Toru SAWAI・Noriyasu HIROKAWA・Takeshi KAJIMOTO・Yoshimitsu ICHINO, Journal of JSEM, 14, s7 - s12, Jul. 2014 , Refereed
  • Scale Effect of Compressive Strength Properties under High Temperature, for Green Tea Bio-coke, MIZUNO Satoru, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, NAMBA Kunihiko, SAWAI Toru, 実験力学 : journal of JSEM, 実験力学 : journal of JSEM, 13(2), 190 - 193, Jul. 2013 , Refereed
  • Effect of Chip Aspect Ratio on Hydraulic Transportation of Woody Biomass, 78(793), 1483 - 1494, Sep. 2012 , Refereed
  • Effect of Tree Species and Comminution Method on Comminution Energy of Woody Biomass, NISHI Kenji, OHMASA Mitsushi, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, SAWAI Toru, SHIBUE Tadashi, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, Journal of Smart Processing, スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing, 1(2), 51 - 57, Mar. 20 2012 , Refereed
    Summary:  In order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, much attention has been focused on energy utilization of biomass in recent years. The promotion of the utilization of domestic woody biomass contributes not only to the improvement of energy selfsufficiency, but also to the environmental protection of forests and undeveloped woodlands near populated areas or satoyamas in Japan. Typical woody biomass derived from Japanese forests and satoyamas are Japanese Cedar and Konara. When woody biomass is utilized as biomass fuel, it is important to examine the energy consumptions for pretreatments such as comminution and reforming. In this study, using Konara, Japanese Cedar, and Balsa, the effects of tree species, comminution methods, and semicarbonization of the woody biomass on comminution energy are investigated. The results obtained in this study are as follows. (1) In the case that water content is less than a fiber saturation point, the comminution energy for three species is expressed as a function of water content. In the case that water content exceeds a fiber saturation point, comminution energy for three species is expressed as a function of density. The comminution energy can be estimated by using the present empirical equations within ±50% accuracy. (2) Regarding the comminution property of semi-carbonized woody biomass, for the wood region, the empirical equations of work index depend on the comminution methods regardless of tree species and sieve of screen. For the semi-carbonized and carbonized regions, the empirical equation of work index is presented regardless of tree species, comminution methods, and sieve of screen. The comminution energy can be estimated by using the present empirical equations within ±60% accuracy.
  • Forming Characteristics of Bio-coke with a Mixture of Bamboo and Carbonized Japanese Cedar, TORII Yusuke, MIZUNO Satoru, NISHI Kenji, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, OHMASA Mitsushi, SAWAI Toru, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, Journal of Smart Processing, Journal of Smart Processing, 1(2), 63 - 70, Mar. 2012 , Refereed
    Summary:  The utilization of unused biomass such as logging residues and broadleaf trees has come to attract attention to protect forests and satoyamas (a Japanese term for undeveloped woodlands near populated areas) in Japan. In this study, the modification of bio-coke fuels as an alternative to coal coke is investigated by using bamboo and Japanese cedar, which are the typical domestic woody biomass in forests and satoyamas. To improve the compressive strength under high temperature environment and the heating value of bio-coke, carbonized Japanese cedar is mixed with bamboo. The effect of the carbide mixture on the forming characteristics of bio-coke such as density, compressive strength, and heating value are experimentally clarified. The results obtained in the present study are as follows: (1) the density of bio-coke increases with increase in forming temperature and forming pressure, but is reduced by the addition of carbide as the thermoplastic polymer is reduced (2) the increase in carbide reduces the compressive strength under normal temperature environment and improves the compressive strength under high temperature environment. When the carbide content was 30%, the compressive strength under high temperature environment was 3.26MPa. (3) The addition of carbide is an effective way to improve the compressive strength under high temperature environment and to enhance the heating value of bio-coke.
  • Effect of Water Content in Woody Biomass on Energy Density Improvement by Semi-carbonization, FUCHIHATA Manabu, ABE Shusuke, IDA Tamio, SAWAI Toru, NAMBA Kunihiko, HONJYO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, Journal of Smart Processing, Journal of Smart Processing, 1(2), 58 - 62, Mar. 2012 , Refereed
    Summary:  Biomass is one of the sustainable energy sources and is the most suitable natural energy for storage and transport. Woody pellet is a typical biomass fuel and is accessible in most places around the world. Its transportation efficiency, however, is not so high, due to lack of energy density. In order to improve the efficiency of woody biomass energy transportation, the 'semi-carbonization pelletizing' method was adopted. Semi-carbonized pellet,' Biomass Carbonized Densified Fuel' (BCDF), is not a fully carbonized woody biomass, but is an intermediate of desiccated woody biomass and charcoal. Although charcoal is a high energy density fuel in J/kg and is widely being used, about a half of the original energy is lost during the carbonization process. Semi-carbonization is a balanced method for energy density improvement and energy yield. The process parameters of semi-carbonization, however, are so many and are not examined yet. In the present study, the effect of water content in woody biomass on the energy density and energy yield of semi-carbonized pellet was examined. Results show that water content diminish the process temperature range for improvement of energy transport efficiency compared to an absolute dry condition.
  • The effect of a metal plate barrier with holes blocking channel in the forced convection of rectangular modules, Heat Transfer―Asian Research, 40(4), 340 - 351, May 2011
  • The Effect of a Metal Plate Barrier with Holes Blocking Channel in the Forced Convection of Rectangular Modules(Thermal Engineering), FUJII Masao, SAWAI Toru, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, 76(770), 1579 - 1585, Oct. 2010 , Refereed
    Summary:Two rectangular block-like elements as an electronic module are positioned in a parallel-walled channel and cooled by forced convection airflow. A metal plate with circular holes as a barrier blocks the channel, which is intended to function as a cover for protecting them from mechanical or electromagnetic damage, or as a thermal control device. Per-module heat transfer coefficients in the presence of the barrier of various hole diameter d, porosity, and distance L, between the module and the barrier were measured. In the presence of the barrier with holes, the heat transfer coefficient at two modules was improved. Nusselt numbers are correlated as a function of Reynolds number, L/d and porosity.
  • Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of air-water two-phase flow in micro-channels, (共著者)Masuo Kaji・Toru Sawai・Yosuke Kagi・Tadanobu Ueda, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 34(4), 446 - 453, May 2010 , Refereed
  • Spatio-Temporal Structure of Gas-Liquid Interface at Flooding for Two Inlet Devices of Gas Flow, Journal of JSEM, 9, 34 - 40, Dec. 2009 , Refereed
  • Comminution and Combustion Properties of Mixture of Semi-Carbonized Woody Biomass and Coal, Journal of JSEM, 9, 36 - 41, Sep. 2009 , Refereed
  • Stability of Annular Flow and Flow Pattern Transition to Churn Flow, Journal of JSEM, 8, 25 - 30, Jul. 2008 , Refereed
  • Effect of Semi-carbonization Pyrolysis on Comminution Energy and Assessment of Transport Property of Woody Biomass, SAWAI Toru, MORITA Akihiro, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, TADA Toru, KAJI Masuo, Journal of High Temperature Society, 高温学会誌, 34(4), 171 - 177, Jul. 2008 , Refereed
    Summary:In order to promote the utilization of unused woody biomass such as forestry biomass and pruned branch of fruit, the utilization of woody biomass has come to attract attention as a fuel at the pulverized-coal fired power plant. When the woody biomass in the forestry region is utilized, it is necessary to examine and reduce the energy consumption for collecting of resources, preprocessing such as comminuting and drying and transportation . In the present study, effect of semi-carbonization pyrolysis on comminution energy and assessment of transport property of woody biomass is investigated. The results obtained are as follows. Empirical correlations of work index in Bond′s Law are presented for both woody and semi-carbonization regions. The comminution energy can be estimated by the present empirical correlations within an accuracy of ±30 percent. To evaluate the effect of semi-carbonization process on the energy reduction of transport and comminution, an analysis of energy consumptions is conducted. From the result of analysis, it is found that the energy consumption ratio is the minimum at a mass yield condition of 0.6 for the same transport distance.
  • A Property Extracted by Composition / Thermal Decomposition Analyses of Various Biomass Resources and Its Correlation, MIZUNO Satoru, MORITA Akihiro, IDA Tamio, NAMBA Kunihiko, FUCHIHATA Manabu, SAWAI Toru, Journal of High Temperature Society, Journal of High Temperature Society, 34(4), 153 - 159, Jul. 2008 , Refereed
  • Transportation of Wood Chips by Liquid Film Flow in Sloped Rough Terrain Pipelines(Fluids Engineering), SAWAI Toru, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, KAJI Masuo, AKASAKA Motofumi, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, 日本機械学會論文集. B編, 74(741), 1032 - 1039, May 2008 , Refereed
    Summary:The unused biomass such as residues left on forest floor and unused portions of farm crops is considered as an important domestic and renewable energy resource. The present study addresses the forestry biomass derived from logging and thinning operations in forests. Since most of the forests in Japan locate in the mountain region, the forestry biomass has not been used continually due to the difficulty in carrying residues out of the forest. In order to promote the utilization of forestry biomass, the efficiencies for the transportation across steep slopes have to be improved. In the present study, the new method to transport wood chips by means of liquid film flow in sloped pipeline is proposed. The transportation limit of wood chips is investigated by using the test section imitating the sloped rough terrain pipeline. The wood chips are stagnated in the downstream region of hydraulic jump, which causes blockage of wood chips in the tube. To predict the flow rate of transportation limit of wood chips at a given liquid flow rate, analytical model is presented. From the comparison with the experimental results, it is found that the transportation limit in the sloped pipeline with horizontal tube can be predicted by the present analytical model.
  • EFFECT OF SURFACTANT ADDITIVES ON FRICTIONAL PRESSURE GRADIENT IN HORIZONTAL TWO-PHASE FLOW, SAWAI Toru, 7, 27 - 32, Jul. 2007 , Refereed
  • Properties of Compressive Strength and Heating Value of Compressed Semi-Carbonized Sugi thinning, SAWAI Toru, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, AKASAKA Motofumi, KAJI Masuo, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, HONJYO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, Journal of High Temperature Society, 高温学会誌, 33(1), 31 - 37, Jan. 2007 , Refereed
  • Energy Utilization of Pruned Branches from Fruit Trees in Wakayama Prefecture : Ash Property, C/N Ratio and Combustion Characteristics of Pruned Branches, SAWAI Toru, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, HONJO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, NANBA Kunihiko, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, SAKON Takanori, Environmental conservation engineering, 環境技術 = ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ENGINEERING, 35(12), 916 - 923, Dec. 2006 , Refereed
  • Effect of Flow Orientation on Characteristics of Gas-Liquid Interfacial Waves in Narrow Rectangular Channel, SAWAI Toru, KAJI Masuo, MATSUI Goichi, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, 71(710), 2427 - 2433, Oct. 2005 , Refereed
    Summary:To clarify the effect of flow orientation on the gas-liquid interfacial structure and frictional pressure gradient in a narrow rectangular channel, simultaneous measurements of pressure gradients and spatio-temporal characteristics of gas-liquid interface are conducted for three different flow orientations; vertical upward flow (V flow), horizontal flow between horizontal plates (H-H flow) and horizontal flow between vertical plates (H-V flow). The velocity field in the liquid flow with inter facial waves is also measured by the PIV and LIF methods. The inter facial structure at low gas and low liquid flow rates is greatly affected by the flow orientation, and the complicated inter facial structure is observed in V flow. To predict the frictional pressure gradient, the wave model which takes account of the wall shear stress for the wave propagation and base film flow is presented. From the comparison of experimental results with predictions by the present model, it is found that the difference in the frictional pressure gradient between the three flow orientations is closely related to the characteristics of inter facial waves as well as the average liquid velocity.
  • The Gatherable Resources of Woody Biomass in the Kii-peninsula for Considering the Sloping Degree of Forestal Land, MORITA Akihiro, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, SAWAI Toru, SANO Hiroshi, Energy and resources, エネルギー・資源, 26(4), 289 - 293, Jul. 2005 , Refereed
  • Effect of Citric Acid Addition on Transportation of Semi-Carbonized Fuel(Utilization of Biomass and Bioenergy), SAWAI Toru, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, HONJYO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, KAJI Masuo, Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, 83(10), 782 - 787, Oct. 2004 , Refereed
    Summary:To clarify the optimum pyrolysis condition of the semi-carbonized fuel and the effect of citric acid addition on the transportation, experiments of the "semi-carbonization" pyrolysis were conducted for cellulose, citric acid and their mixtures. The acid additives promoted dehydration of cellulose, and affected the weight yield of char derived from cellulose within the temperature region of the semi-carbonization pyrolysis. The transportation analysis model of the semi-carbonized fuel was presented to evaluate the optimum weight yield for a given transportation distance. It was found that the acid additives reduced the weight yield at a given pyrolysis temperature and contributed to improving the transportation of the semi-carbonized fuel.
  • Gas-Liquid Interfacial Structure and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Churn Flow, T.Sawai・M.Kaji・T.Kasugai・H.Nakashima・T.Mori, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 28(6), 597 - 606, Jun. 2004 , Refereed
  • Analogy between Heat transfer and Fluid Friction of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Minichannel, M.Kaji・T.Sawai・K.Mori, Thermal Science & Engineering, 11(6), 59 - 66, Nov. 2003 , Refereed
  • Prediction of Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Loss by Hydrodynamic Flow Model, SAWAI Toru, KAJI Masuo, KASUGAI Takehiro, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, 日本機械学會論文集. B編, 68(676), 3245 - 3251, Dec. 2002 , Refereed
    Summary:Simultaneous measurements of pressure gradients and spatio-temporal characteristics of gasliquid interface are conducted in vertical upward two-phase flow. To clarify the mechanism of frictional pressure losses for slug, churn and annular flow regimes, a hydrodynamic flow model is presented which permits predictions of the frictional pressure gradient for a wide range of flow regimes. The liquid flow structure is assumed to consist of waves propagating upward and base film flow. The contributions of waves and base film flow to the frictional pressure gradients are presented by considering P. D. F. for liquid holdup. At low liquid flow rate, the wave velocity is much higher than the absolute velocity of the base film, and the frictional pressure gradient is dominantly caused by the wave propagation. At high liquid flow rate, the contribution of the base film flow becomes comparable to that of waves. The agreement between the predicted frictional pressure gradients by the present model and experimental data is fairly good.
  • Flow Characteristics of Churn Flow Liquid Flow Rate, SAWAI To'oru, KAJI Masuo, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, 日本機械学會論文集. B編, 67(654), 356 - 363, Feb. 2001 , Refereed
    Summary:In the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow, churn flow is a distinctive flow pattern that appears in the intermediate region between annular and slug flow. To clarify the flow characteristics of churn flow, simultaneous measurements of spatio-temporal characteristics of gas-liquid interface and pressure gradients are conducted at low liquid flow rate conditions. Flow reversal of the liquid film and large wave formation are found to be characteristic features in this regime. The decrease of gas flow rate makes the flow oscillation more violent, which induces a breakdown of the continuous gas core by bridging of the liquid film, and eventually leads to the flow pattern transition from churn to slug flow. The effect of flow structure of churn flow on the frictional pressure gradient is also investigated. It is found that the negative slope and the drastic decease in the frictional pressure gradient are attributable to the propagation of large wave and the formation of the developing slug flow, respectively.
  • Forced Convective Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics and Critical Heat Flux in Helically Coiled Tubes, KAJI Masou, MORI Koji, MATSUMOTO Tadayosi, OISHI Masaya, SAWAI To'oru, NAKANISHI Shigeyasu, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. B, 日本機械学會論文集. B編, 64(626), 3343 - 3349, Oct. 1998 , Refereed
    Summary:Heat transfer and CHF (Critical heat flux) characteristics of flow boiling of R-113 in helically coiled tubes were experimentally investigated. Two coiled tubes with coil diameters of 0.165 and 0.32m, and 10mm I.D. were tested at a pressure of 0.39 MPa. In the nucleate boiling region, circumferential difference in heat transfer was not clarified qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The ratio of circumferential average boiling heat transfer coefficient to that of the single-phase flow in a curved tube, h_/h_, was found to be rather close to the correlations of Pujol-Stenning and Ueda-Kim for a straight tube flow. In the high quality region, the heat transfer coefficient was highest at the coil outside and lowest at the inside, and the average heat transfer coefficient ratio h_/h_ was expressed in terms of Martinelli parameter, X_, only. A correlation applicable to both the nucleate boiling and forced convective evaporation regions was proposed. The CHF of the coiled tube was higher than that of the straight tube when the coil diameter was small, but it became considerably low at low mass velocity when the coil diameter was large.
  • An Experimental Study on Chaotic Behavior of Thermohydraulic Oscillation in an Evaporating Tube, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering, 59(557), 204 - 211, Jan. 1993 , Refereed
  • 自然循環ボイラの逆流現象に関する研究, 山内庄司・澤井徹・中西重康, 3(2), 120 - 130, Jun. 1989 , Refereed
  • Behavior of Disturbance Waves under Hydrodynamic Non-Equilibrium Conditions, T.Sawai・S.Yamauchi・S.Nakanishi, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 15(3), 341 - 356, May 1989 , Refereed
  • Experimental studies of disturbance waves in boiling two-phase flow. Continued report ; Effects of hydrodynamic non-equilibrium and density ratio., NAKANISHI Shigeyasu, KAJI Masuo, YAMAUCHI Shoji, SAWAI Tooru, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series C, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series C, 53(487), 1091 - 1096, 1987 , Refereed
    Summary:Additional experimental data of the disturbance waves in boiling two-phase flow were obtained over a wider range of quality than our previous study [1]. In order to clarify the differences in the characteristics of the disturbance waves between the boiling steam-water system and the adiabatic air-water system, two effects were experimentally investigated. One was the effect of hydrodynamic non-equilibrium due to boiling, namely the modification of the liquid distribution among the base film, disturbance waves and entrainment. The other was that of the gas-liquid density ratio. In the experiments with the evaporating tube followed by the unheated section, the former effect was observed in the standard deviation of the wave propagation velocity, the mean wave time-separation and the wave shape. Finally by comparing the data of the steam-water system with those of the air -water system for three density ratios, it was concluded that the disturbance waves between both systems were different in nature.
  • Behavior of Disturbance waves in the Dryout Region, S.Nakanishi・M.Kaji・S.Yamauchi・Y.Kazuoka・T.Sawai, Physico chemical Hydrodynamics, 6(1/2), 157 - 164, Nov. 1985 , Refereed
  • An experimental study of disturbance waves in boiling two-phase flow., NAKANISHI Shigeyasu, KAJI Masuo, YAMAUCHI Shoji, SAWAI To'oru, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series C, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series C, 51(463), 1026 - 1032, Mar. 1985 , Refereed
    Summary:Behaviors of disturbance waves in an evaporating tube are experimentally investigated in high quality region using conductance probe method under the following conditions : pressure 2.95 Mpa, mass velocity 300, 500 and 700kg/(m2 ·s), heat flux up to 1.2 MW/m2 and thermodynamic quality larger than 0.80. As the results of comparison with air-water adiabatic data, it is found that the disturbance waves in the boiling steam-warter system has the following remarkable features ; a) the wave does not take sharp spike like form and has a log tail, b) scattering of the propagation speed is larger than that of the air-water system, c) the space separation of two neighboring wave does not vary significantiy with the quality. It is also confirmed that the disturbance waves have a close connection with the wall temperature fluctuation at the dryout region.

Books etc

  • Disturbance Wave in Boiling Flow(共著), Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow CRC Press,   1992

Conference Activities & Talks

  • Effect of Torrefaction Degree on Extrusion Force of Softened Wood Powder, Toru SAWAI, Hiroki IMAMURA,   2016 08 10
  • Energy Properties of Torrefied Biofuel from Cellulose, Toru Sawai, Satoru Mizuno, Tamio Ida, International Conference on Business and Industrial Research 2016,   2016 05 12
  • 3-4-1 Evaluation of Torrefied Woody Biomass using Colorimetric Values, SAWAI Toru, KATAYAMA Ichiro, KITABAYASHI Yoshie, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, SANO Hiroshi, HONJYO Takako, 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集,   2014 07 14
    Summary:The torrefaction is one of the reforming methods to convert the woody biomass into a form with high heating value under the condition of high energy yield. The torrefaction process also performs a function as the energy required to grind becomes small. To investigate non-invasive evaluation of the torrefied woody biomass, the relationship between colorimetric values and mass yield Y_M of torrefied biomass is experimentally obtained. In the case that Y_M is above 0.9, Y_M is expressed as a function of L^*, and in the case that Y_M is below 0.9, Y_M is expressed as a function of a^*. The experimental results can be estimated by using the present non-invasive evaluation within accuracy of±10%.
  • Study on Transportation of Japanese-style bedding using a Digital Mannequin,   2013 12
  • Usability of Flick Input with Fit-key on Smartphone,   2013 11
  • Usability Analysis of Character Input with Smartphone Fit Key System,   2013 09
  • The effect of a metal plate barrier blocking channel in the forced convection of rectangular modules,   2013 08
  • Falling behavior simulation of a seated Human body on a carriage at experimental collision, International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference,   2013 07 , International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
  • Structure Analysis on Honeycomb Panel with Press Formed Core,   2012 09
  • Discussion on Input Method of Smart Phone based on EMG,   2012 09
  • Falling behavior simulation of a standing human body on a carriage at experimental collision, to simulate a collision between a high speed ship and a quay, International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference,   2012 06 , International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
  • Ergonomic Design of Shower Chair by using Digital Manikins,   2012 06
  • J121012 Falling behavior of the standing passenger with a knob in the hand at sudden stop of a bus, SHIBUE Tadashi, MISUMI Rie, NISHI Kenji, HAYAMI Takashi, SAWAI Toru, OHMASA Mitsushi, HEROKAWA Noriyasu, Mechanical Engineering Congress, Japan,   2011 09 11
    Summary:Transient behavior of a passenger's body standing within a bus at sudden stop is estimated based on finite element method. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of the velocity of the bus, the grip force of the passenger, facing direction and friction between shoes and floor on the falling behavior of a passenger's body at sudden stop. The bus model is made to represent the arrangement of a bus used for local transportation. The human body model is made to represent aged woman of about 70 years old, based on the human body scantling database of AIST Japan. As the first step of simulation, gravity effects are applied to the whole model. Then, initial velocity is applied to both the bus model and the human body model. The bus model collides with the barrier model to simulate the sudden stop of the bus. The FEM code LS-DYNA is used for current simulation.
  • J031013 The effect of a metal plate barrier without holes in forced convection of rectangular modules, FUJII Masao, SAWAI Toru, Mechanical Engineering Congress, Japan,   2011 09 11
    Summary:Two rectangular block-like elements as an electronic module are positioned in a parallel-walled channel and cooled by forced convection airflow. A metal plate without holes as a barrier was put in front of the modules, which is intended to function as a cover for protecting them from mechanical or electromagnetic damage, or as a thermal control device. Per-module heat transfer coefficients in the presence of the barrier of various gap, G, between the barrier and the channel and distance, L, between the module and the barrier were measured. Nusselt numbers are correlated as a function of Reynolds number and G/L.
  • G030163Effect of Core Size on Rigidity of Honeycomb Panel with Dia-cut Patterned Core, OHMASA Mitsushi, SUGIMOTO YUichi, NISHI Kenji, HIROKAWA Takayasu, HAYAMI Takashi, SAWAI Toru, SHIBUE Tadashi, Mechanical Engineering Congress, Japan,   2011 09 11
    Summary:Honeycomb panels with diamond-cut patterned core were analyzed by the finite element method applying thestatic bend load. The structure analysis were done when core size and joint shape were changed. The thickness of coreplates was decreased to keep light weight. The displacement and the stress distribution of panels were compared, andthe effect of the core size on the rigidity ofpanels was examined.
  • The effect of a metal plate barrier without holes in forced convection of rectangular modules,   2011 09
  • Effect of Core Size on Rigidity of Honeycomb Panel with Dia-cut Patterned Core,   2011 09
  • State of Thumb in Operating Cellular Phone Key,   2011 09
  • F116 Assessment of Comminution Energy of Pulverized Wood Fuel, NISHI Kenji, SAWAI Toru, OHMASA Mitsushi, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, SHIBUE Tadashi, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, National Symposium on Power and Energy Systems,   2011 06 22
    Summary:In recent years, much attention has been focused on the energy utilization of woody biomass to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas. When the woody biomass is utilized, it is necessary to examine the energy consumption for collection of resources, pretreatment, transportation and after-treatment. The pretreatment of pulverized wood fuel is consisted of three procedures; drying, semi-carbonization and fine comminution. The purpose of the study is to investigate the comminution characteristic of the Japanese cedar thinning and the reduction in energy consumption for pretreatment process and transportation of pulverized wood fuel. Analysis of energy consumption for the pretreatment process and transportation is conducted by using the present empirical equations of work index. From the result of analysis, it is found that the semi-carbonization at a temperature of 250 degree C is effective to the reduction in total energy consumption, when the pulverized wood fuel of 2000 microns or less in particle size is utilized.
  • F112 Optimum Molding Conditions and Reduction Effect in GHG of Semi-Carbonized Wood-Briquette Fuels, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, NISHI Kenji, SAWAI Toru, TAKATSUJI Wataru, IMANISHI Toshito, YAMAGIWA Yoshinobu, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, National Symposium on Power and Energy Systems,   2011 06 22
    Summary:The purpose of this study is to develop "Semi-Carbonized Wood-Briquette Fuels (SCWB)" used in the Pulverized coal fired power plant. This study was conducted to clarify reduction effect in GHG for co-combustion in the coal fired power plants and optimum molding conditions of Biomass solid fuels. The experimental results obtained are as follows. (1) Optimum molding temperature of SCWB: Density of SCWB has the highest value when consolidated at thermo-fluid occurrence temperature of material. (2) Reduction effect in GHG: SCWB has the highest reduction of GHG owing to its higher bulk density and better grindability than other fuels. It is found that SCWB are appropriate for co-combustion in the Pulverized coal fired power plant.
  • Ergonomic Design of Daily Use Products by using Computer Manikins,   2011 06
  • Falling behavior simulation of a standing passenger on a high speed ship at collision accident , International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference,   2011 06 , International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
  • 805 Reduction in GHG of Semi-Carbonized Wood-Briquette based on LCA, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, NISHI Kenji, SAWAI Toru, TAKATSUJI Wataru, IMANISHI Toshito, YAMAGIWA Yoshinobu, 関西支部講演会講演論文集,   2011 03 19
  • 803 Energy Consumption for Pretreatment Process of Pulverized Wood Fuel, NISHI Kenji, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, SAWAI Toru, OHMASA Mitsushi, SHIBUE Tadashi, 関西支部講演会講演論文集,   2011 03 19
  • P-43 Formability of Semi-Carbonized Woody Briquette, SAWAI Toru, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, NISI Kenji, TAKATSUJI Wataru, IMANISHI Toshito, YAMAGIWA Yoshinobu, バイオマス科学会議発表論文集,   2011 01 12
    Summary:To reduce the emission of CO_2, the power generation by coal and biomass co-firing at existing pulverized coal fired power plants has come to attract attention. In the present study, a continuous production system of semi-carbonized woody briquette is proposed. The pretreatment of semi-carbonization and compaction forming before transportation can be effective in reducing the energy consumption for fme pulverization and transportation. Assuming that the domestic forestry biomass in Wakayama prefecture is used as a fuel in pulverized coal fired power plants, the reduction in GUG is analyzed by LCA. To form the compaction fuel, the thermo-fluid phenomena of semi-carbonized woody biomass and the optimal conditions of compaction forming are investigated.
  • Thermo-Fluid Phenomena of Wood and Compression Formability of Semi-Carbonized Fuels, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, NISI Kenji, SAWAI Toru, TAKATSUJI Wataru, IMANISHI Toshito, YAMAGIWA Yoshinobu, 高温学会誌,   2010 11 20
  • Characteristics Comminution of Woody Biomass, NISHI Kenji, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, SAWAI Toru, OHMASA Mitsushi, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, 高温学会誌,   2010 11 20
  • Scratch Test of Simulated Body Fluid-derived Hydroxyapatite Film on Biomedical Titanium Substrates, the 3rd International Congress on Ceramics,   2010 11 , the 3rd International Congress on Ceramics
  • G0300-9-4 Effect of Core Shape on Rigidity of Honeycomb Panel with Dia-cut Patterned Core, OHMASA Mitsushi, SHIBUE Tadashi, HIROKAWA Takayasu, HAYAMI Takashi, SAWAI Toru, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2010 09 04
    Summary:Honeycomb panels with diamond-cut patterned core were analyzed by the finite element method applying the static bend load. The structure analysis were done when the angle or polygonal shape of the core were changed. The thickness of core plates was decreased to keep light weight. The stress distribution and the displacement of around the joint parts were compared, and the effect of the core shape on the rigidity of panels was examined.
  • J1201-1-3 A fall behavior simulation of a standing passenger in a train, SHIBUE Tadashi, HAYAMI Takashi, SAWAI Toru, OHMASA Mitsushi, HIROKAWA Takayasu, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2010 09 04
    Summary:Transient behaviour of a passenger's body standing within a train at an accidental collision is estimated based on finite element method. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of facing direction and grip force on the behaviour of a passenger's body at the accidental collision. A passenger's body model and a train model are developed to proceed a numerical simulation within a short time.
  • G0600-3-4 Formability and Flow Properties of Thermal Fluid of Wood Powder in Extrusion Process, KINOMOTO Yoshiki, SAWAI Toru, MINENO Tomoyuki, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, SHIBUE Tadashi, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2010 09 04
    Summary:Woody biomass has come to attract attention as renewable resources because of the issue of global warming and air pollution. Plastics substitution is one of the most promising utility form of woody biomass, and many studies have been made on the molding method of wood. But that has been no study on the injection molding of thermal fluid wood powder. To clarity viscous property of thermal fluid wood powder, experimental studies on the flow characteristics of thermal fluid wood powder are conducted. It is confirmed that thermal fluid wood powder has non-Newtonian flow property, and the empirical equation to predict the viscosity is developed.
  • G0600-7-1 Formability of Semi-Carbonized Bio-Solid Fuels, ICHINO Yoshimitsu, SAWAI Toru, HAYAMI Takashi, OHMASA Mitsushi, TAKATSUJI Wataru, IMANISHI Toshito, YAMAGIWA Yoshinobu, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2010 09 04
    Summary:The purpose of this study is to develop "Semi-carbonized Bio-solid Fuels" used in the pulverized coal fired power plant. Experimental studies on formability of molded fuel and thermo-fluid phenomena of woody biomass are conducted to clarify the optimum molding conditions. The experimental results obtained are as follows. (1) Thermo-fluid phenomena of woody biomass: The occurrence temperature of thermo-fluid phenomena decreases as the molding pressure and the water content are increased. (2)Compression molding of semi-carbonized material: Rise in the molding temperature and the water content of woody biomass improve formability of molded fuel. It is found that the optimum molding conditions are closely related to the occurrence of Thermo-fluid phenomena of woody biomass.
  • The effect of a metal plate barrier with circular holes blocking channel in forced convection of a circular cylinder,   2010 09
  • Usability of Cellular Phone Key Layout based on EMG,   2010 09
  • Effect of Core Shape on Rigidity of Honeycomb Panel with Dia-cut Patterned Core,   2010 09
  • Ergonomic Design with Digital Human and its Integration with EMG,   2010 06
  • Falling behavior simulation of a seated passenger on a high speed ship at accidental collision, International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference,   2010 06 , International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
  • J0407-2-2 Effect of Tree Species and Moisture Content on Extrusion Process of Thermal Fluid Wood Powder, MINENO Tomoyuki, SAWAI Toru, HAYAMI Takashi, OMASA Mitushi, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, KAJI Masuo, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2009 09 12
    Summary:Extrusion experiments for pruned branches from fruit tree and Japanese cedar thinning were conducted at a uniform press speed. The results obtained in the present study are as follows. (1) The formability in extrusion process is significantly affected by the forming temperature and moisture contents of samples. The molding defects are observed at a forming temperature below 120 degree C for the moisture content of 17%. It is considered that the expansion of moldings is due to the residual free water. (2) The dynamic equilibrium load decreases with increasing forming temperature and moisture content. The temperature for the thermo-fluid phenomena of wood powder depends on tree species. It is found that the forming temperature for the branches of Japanese apricot and persimmon is lower than that for Japanese cedar.
  • J0205-1-2 A fall behavior simulation of a standing passenger in a train at collision, SHIBUE Tadashi, MURAMATO Izumi, HAYAMI Takashi, SAWAI Toru, OHMASA Mitsushi, HIROKAWA Takayasu, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2009 09 12
    Summary:Transient behaviour of a passenger's body standing within a train at an accidental collision is estimated based on finite element method. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of facing direction and grip force on the behaviour of a passenger's body at the accidental collision. A passenger's body model and a train model are developed to proceed a numerical simulation within a short time.
  • EMG of Flexor Muscles in Operating Cellular Phone Keys,   2009 09
  • 1307 Formability of Wood Plastic from Wood Powder in Extrusion Process, MINENO Tomoyuki, SAWAI Toru, HAYAMI Takashi, OMASA Mitushi, HIROKAWA Noriyasu, 関西支部講演会講演論文集,   2009 03 16
  • Hydraulic transportation of wood chips in sloped rough terrain forest, 澤井 徹, 梶本 武志, Proceedings of JSEM,   2009
  • 1543 Flow Properties of Comminuted Pruned Branches from Fruit Trees in Extrusion Process, MINENO Tomoyuki, SAWAI Toru, HAYAMI Takashi, KAJI Masuo, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2008 08 02
    Summary:Extrusion experiments for pruned branches from fruit tree were conducted at a uniform press speed. The results obtained in the present study are as follows. Molding defects were observed for all experimental conditions. The size of cracks on the molding increases with an increase in press speed. The dynamic equilibrium load in the range of press speed between 0.1 and 10mm/min. was denoted as a power function with press speed. In the case of capillary diameter of 2mm, bursts in extrusion processes occurred due to production of thermal decomposition gas.
  • Thermo-Hydro Dynamics of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in Microchannels,   2008 08
  • 813 For Energy Conversion Technology with bio-chemically view point applied of unutilizatin biomass, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, SAWAI Toru, 関西支部講演会講演論文集,   2008 03 14
  • 0531 Comminution Property of Mixuture of Semi-carbonized Biomass and Coal, TADA Toru, SAWAI Toru, KAJI Masuo, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2007 09 07
    Summary:In order to utilize the forestry biomass as energy resources, it is necessary to improve the transport of biomass. Pyrolysis reform processes before the transport are the most effective method. In the present study, the model to evaluate the effect of semi-carbonization process on the energy reduction of transport and comminution is presented. Effects of mass distribution ratio and pyrolysis temperature on the energy required to comminute biomass and coal mixture are experimentally investigated. The energy consumption rate is minimal at Y_M of 0.6 for the same transport distance. The comminution energy for the temperature range of 20 to 150 degree is overestimated by the prediction method based on the mass distribution ratio, while the comminution energy for the temperature range of 200 to 400 obeys the mass distribution ratio.
  • 0609 DNB Phenomena under Low Quality Condition in a Helically Coiled Heat Transfer Tube, MATSUI Goichi, SUZUKI Masatomi, KAJI Masuo, SAWAI Toru, YOSHIKAWA Shinji, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2007 09 07
    Summary:This study deals with specific phenomena to boiling two phase flow in a helically coiled tube in a bath kept at a constant temperature. Two phase flow tends to be intermittent under a low quality condition and may be strongly influenced from buoyancy, gravity and centrifugal forces. Therefore, the investigations on detailed phenomena under a low quality condition are required for the sake of the design of safe structure and safe operation of heat exchangers with helically coiled tubes. Thus, in the study, the characteristics. of boiling phenomena were investigated experimentally using an apparatus of scale model using water (or N_2 gas and water) as a working fluid. The result suggests that the inner wall became in a dry-out condition after boiling of water and got wet again owing to arrival of water plug. Therefore, it is supposed that DNB may occur repeatedly.
  • 1802 Relation between Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow in Small Diameter tubes, KAGI Yosuke, KAJI Masuo, SAWAI Toru, UEDA Tadanobu, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2007 09 07
    Summary:Heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction were simultaneously measured for upward heated air-water two-phase flow in about 4 and 0.5mm I.D. tubes to investigate the analogy between heat transfer and fluid friction of two-phase flow in small diameter tubes. In the case of 4mm I.D., Void fraction agreed with the Armand's correlation, but it took the lower value in the case of 0.5mm I.D.. When the liquid superficial velocity j_l was very low, frictional pressure drop agreed with the empirical correlation of Mishima-Hibiki for small diameter tube, whereas agreed well with Chisholm-Laird correlation when j_l was relatively large. Heat transfer coefficients agreed with frictional pressure drop correlations of Chisholm-Laird except when j_l was very low for 4mm I.D. tube.
  • 5409 Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature and Water Content on Energy Required to Crush Woody Biomass, SAITO Yusuke, TADA Toru, SAWAI Toru, KAJI Masuo, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2006 09 15
    Summary:When the woody biomass is utilized as fuel, it is necessary to examine the energy input for collecting of resources, preprocessing such as grinding and drying, conversion, fabrication, and transportation of fuel. In the present study, effects of water content and pyrolysis temperature on the energy required to grind woody biomass are investigated. Test samples used in the experiments are Japanese cedar thinning materials and Ume pruned branches that are made by thermal decomposition in 20 to 500 degree temperature range. The grinding energy of woody biomass decreases with increasing pyrolysis temperature and decreasing water content. To predict the grinding energy of woody biomass, the work index based on the Bond theory is correlated by the pyrolysis temperature.
  • Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in Small Diameter Tubes,   2006 08
  • 236 Effect of Surfactant Additives on Frictional Pressure Gradient in Horizontal Two-phase Flow, SHISHINO Kazuyuki, SAWAI Toru, KAJI Masuo, 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting,   2005 09 18
    Summary:This paper presents the effect of surfactant additives on frictional pressure gradient and gas-liquid interfacial structure for the air-water two-phase flow in a 13.5mm diameter horizontal pipe. The surfactant (CTAC) used in the experiments was n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride mixed with a counter-ion sodium salicylate. In the slug flow, the addition of CTAC produces the pressure drop reduction up to 40% at a liquid Reynolds number of 6000. At high Reynolds number above 20000, the effectiveness of CTAC addition is not observed. In the annular and stratified flow, the liquid holdup is affected by the addition of CTAC, which increase in the frictional pressure gradient.
  • 3-31. Transportation of Wood Chips by Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Hilly Terrain Pipelines : Effect of Wood Chip Aspect Ratio on Blockage Condition, SAWAI Toru, AKASAKA Motofumi, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, SANO Hiroshi, HONJO Takako, 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集,   2005 08 04
  • 3-30. Compatibility of woody heat utilization for wood drying at timber factory, SANO Hirosi, MORITA Akihiro, HONJO Takako, IDA Tamio, SAWAI Tooru, 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集,   2005 08 04
  • 3-17. New technology for enhancing the energy intensity on solid fuel of woody biomass, HONJO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, IDA Tamio, SAWAI Touru, 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集,   2005 08 04
  • Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Bore Tubes,   2005 08
  • Optimum type of biomass for global energy transportation, HONJO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, SAWAI Touru, IDA Tamio, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Japan Society of Energy and Resources,   2005 06 09
  • Optimum Pyrolysis Condition of Semi-Carbonized Fuel by Energy Analysis Model, SAWAI Toru, HONJYO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Japan Society of Energy and Resources,   2005 06 09
  • 104 Alternative coal coke by woody biomass, IDA Tamio, Fuchihata Manabu, SANO Hiroshi, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering,   2005 03 18
    Summary:For rapid iron and steel demand in China in the up-date, the cost of the coal coke soars suddenly, and the management of iron and steel manufacturer in our country is remarkably oppressed. In this study, the pretreatment is conducted to woody biomass, it was enabled that the briquette size wood fuel of the high intense (wood biocoke) was produced. The examination was tried on the ole for the casting process by the cupola used as coal coke alternative fuel in order to confirm the property of this wood biocke. The wood biocoke is produced, while it is cylindrically correspondent to actual coal coke size for the casting. From this consideration, it is proven that to substitute whole 10〜20% from the coal coke is sufficiently possible.
  • Engineering possibility and Marketability of the Wood Biocoke, IDA Tamio, FUCHIHATA Manabu, SAWAI Tohru, SANO Hiroshi, HONJHO Takako, エネルギーシステム・経済・環境コンファレンス講演論文集 = Proceedings of the ... Conference on Energy, Economy, and Environment,   2005 01 26
  • Heat Transfer and Frictional Pressure Drop Characteristics of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Diameter Tubes, The 1st International Forum on Heat Transfer,   2004 11 , The 1st International Forum on Heat Transfer
  • Effect of phosphoric acid Additives on Energy Density Upgrading and Transportation of Semi-Carbonized Biomass Fuel,   2004 09
  • Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Vertical Upward Two-Phase Flow in Minichannel,   2004 09
  • Effect of surfactant additives on gas-liquid interfacial structure in annular two-phase flow,   2004 08
  • Relation between Heat Transfer and Frictional Pressure Loss of Heated Air-Water Two Phase Flow in Small Diameter Tubes,   2004 08
  • 3-47 Transportation of Wood Chips by Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Hilly Terrain Pipelines : Blockage Condition of Wood Chips, SAWAI Toru, AKASAKA Motofumi, KAJIMOTO Takeshi, SANO Hiroshi, HONJO Takako, 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集,   2004 07 29
  • Interfacial Structure of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow, Thermal Science & Engineering,   2004 07
  • Transportation of Wood Chips by Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Hilly Terrain Pipelines - Blockage Condition of Wood Chips -,   2004 07
  • Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Structure in Narrow Rectangular Channel,   2004 05
  • Pressure Drop Reduction in Vertical Upward Two-Phase Flow with Surfactant Additives,   2004 03
  • Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Structure in Narrow Rectangular Channel,   2004 03
  • Effect of Acid Additives on Transportation of Semi-Carbonized Woody Biomass Fuel,   2004 01
  • Frictional Pressure Drop of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in Small Diameter Tubes, KAJI Masuo, SAWAI Toru, UEDA Tadanobu, Procee[d]ings of Thermal Engineering Conference,   2003 11 10
    Summary:Frictional pressure drops of horizontal adiabatic air-water two-phase flow in Pyrex grass tubes with inside diameters of around 1,2,4 mm, respectively, were measured. The experimental results are compared with the author's previous experiment on heated air-water vertical flow with stainless steel tube of 2 mm I.D., and good agreement is obtained between the present and previous experimental results. Two-phase multiplier Ф_l^2 is correlated very well by Chisholm-Laird's equation at relatively large liquid and gas superficial velocities, whereas Mishima-Hibiki's modified correlation for small diameter tube is valid for the case where the liquid superficial velocity is low. This depends on Reynolds number of liquid phase. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is considered to occur at liquid phase Reynolds number of around 1000.
  • Frictiowal pressure drop of air-water two-phase flow in small diameter tubes,   2003 11
  • Relation between heat transfer and frictional pressure loss for flow boiling of water,   2003 11
  • Energy Density Upgrading of Woody Biomass by Semi-Carbonization Pyrolysis ~ Effect of Acid Additives on Transportation ~,   2003 11
  • Pressure Drop Reduction with Surfactant in Vertical Upward Two-Phase Flow,   2003 08
  • Flow characteristics of Annular Liquid Film with Surfactant Additives,   2003 07
  • Woody biomass resources of the Ki peninsula and estimate method of its export quantity,   2003 06
  • Reappraisal of cascading rank for utility value of biomass,   2003 06
  • New Fuel BCDF: Hot briquetting method of cellulose, apanese cypress sawdust and KAIZUKAIBUKI,   2003 06
  • Effect of Acid Additives on Transportation of semi.Carbonized Fuel,   2003 06
  • Woody Biomass Resources of the Kii peninsula and estimate Method of its export quantity,   2003 06
  • Pressure Drop Reduction in Vertical Upward Slug Flow with Surfactant Additives,   2003 05
  • Analogy between heat transfer and fluid friction of gas.liquid two-phase flow in minichannel,   2003 04
  • Heat transfer and pressure drop of flow boiling in a round tube(Theoretical calculation of heat transfer in forced convection evaporation region),   2003 03
  • Effect of surfactant on Drag Reduction in Vertical Upward Two-Phase Flow,   2003 03
  • Flow structure of liquid film in Counter-Current Two-Phase flow,   2003 03
  • Gas-Liquid interfacial structure in narrow rectargula duct,   2003 03
  • Effect of Acid Additives on Pyrolysis of woody biomass,   2003 03
  • The possibility of biomass market in Japan : Joined in the first world conference on pellets, HONJO Takako, SANO Hiroshi, FUCHIHATA Manabu, IDA Tamio, NAKATA Yuji, SAWAI Toru, エネルギーシステム・経済・環境コンファレンス講演論文集 = Proceedings of the ... Conference on Energy, Economy, and Environment,   2003 01 30
  • Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Flow Boiling in a Round Tube : Theoretical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Forced Convective Evaporation Region, KAJI Masuo, SAWAI Toru, MORI Koji, 関西支部講演会講演論文集,   2003
    Summary:Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were simultaneously measured for vertical upward boiling flow of water in a round tube with an inner diameter of 8mm. Frictional pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient were compared with correlations of Chisholm-Laird and the authors in the form of Φ_1^2 and h_/h_/(1-α) against Maltinelli parameter 1/X_. It was found that the analogy between heat transfer and fluid friction was valid for boiling flow. Numerical calculation of heat transfer coefficient was carried out for annular flow model. Liquid film thickness and wall shear stress was determined from Smith's correlation and our present correlation, respectively. Velocity and temperature profiles were calculated using eddy diffusivity model. Agreement between the experimental and calculated values of heat transfer coefficient was fairly good.
  • Energy potential of forestry biomass in moutainous area,   2002 12
  • 3-33. The possibility of a district energy independence city with woody biomass energy, IDA Tamio, Fuchihata Manabu, Sawai Toru, Sano Hiroshi, 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集,   2002 08 01
  • The possibility of a district energy independence city with woody biomass energy,   2002 08
  • Heat Transfer and Fluid Friction Analogy of Gas?Liquid Two?Phase Flow in a Small Bore Tube,   2002 07
  • Study of Flow Oscillation in Natural Circulation Loop,   2002 07
  • Flow Orientation and frictional Pressare Gradient in Narrow Rectaugular Channel,   2002 07
  • Thermal energy of aste Resource in Rural Area,   2002 06
  • The possibility and the ripple effect of a energy independent city,   2002 06
  • Flow Stracture of Liquid Film and Frictional Pressure Gradient in Couater Carrent Two-Phace Flow,   2002 06
  • Thermal Energy Utilization of Waste Biomass Resource in Rural Area,   2002 06
  • 417 Liquid Film Flow Instability in Annular Flow and Large Wave Formation, SAWAI To'oru, KAJI Masuo, 講演論文集,   2000 10 17
  • 416 Analogy between Heat Transfer and Fluid Friction of Flow Boiling in a Tube, KAJI Masuo, SAWAI To'oru, MORI Koji, 講演論文集,   2000 10 17

Misc

  • Features and Benefits of Solid Biofuels “BIC” to replace Coal Coke, Toru SAWAI, Tamio IDA, Proceedings of ISEM'17,   2017 11 , Refereed
  • Effect of torrefaction on flow characteristics of thermo-fluid wood powder by hot extrusion process, Hiroki IMAMURA, Satoru MIZUNO, Toru SAWAI Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Proceedings of ISEM'16,   2016 11 , Refereed, 10.11395/jjsem.15.s7
  • Estimation of Energy Density and Energy Yield of Torrefied Biomass with Colorimetric Values, Toru SAWAI, Ichiro KATAYAMA, Tamio IDA, Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Proceedings of the International Conference on Power Engineering-15,   2015 12 , Refereed, 10.1299/jsmeicope.2015.12._ICOPE-15-_14
  • Development of a Formula for Estimating Properties of Upgraded Wood Pellets by Pyrolysis Treatment using Colorimetric Values, Toru SAWAI, Ichiro KATAYAMA, Tamio IDA, Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Hiroki IMAMURA, Proceedings of ISEM'15,   2015 11 , Refereed
  • Experimental Study on Flow Characteristics of Thermo-Fluid Wood Powder by Hot Extrusion Process, Toru SAWAI, Noriyasu HIROKAWA, Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Proceedings of ISEM'14,   2014 11 , Refereed, 10.11395/jjsem.15.s7
  • Characteristics of Thermo-Fluid Phenomena of Torrefied Wood Chips and Optimum Molding Condition of Torrefied Wood Briquette, Toru SAWAI, Noriyasu HIROKAWA, Takeshi KAJIMOTO, Yoshimitsu ICHINO, Proceedings of ISEM'13,   2013 11 , Refereed, 10.11395/jjsem.14.s7
  • Effect of Chip Aspect Ratio on Hydraulic Transportation of Wood Chips in Sloped Terrain Pipelines, T. Sawai, M. Ohmasa, N. Hirokawa, T. Kajimoto, Proceedings of the 23th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena,   2012 11
  • Hydraulic Transportation Sysystem of Wood Chips by Hilly Terrain Pipelines, TORU SAWAI, TAKESHI KAJIMOTO, MITSUSHI OHMASA, TADASHI SHIBUE, KENJI NISHI, Proceedings of the 22th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena,   2011 11
  • Thermo-fluid Phenomena of Wood Powder in Forming Process of Bio-Solid Fuel, 澤井 徹, 井田 民男, 梶本 武志, 近畿大学資源再生研究所報告, 8, 27, 31,   2010 03 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/120003184669
    Summary:[Synopsis]  Woody biomass is commonly recognized as one of the most promising renewable energy resource. In order to promote the utilization of woody biomass, the efficiencies for transportation have to be improved. The biomass as energy resource is unsuited to transportation over a long distance because of its low energy density as well as moisture contents. To develop bio-solid fuels whose heating values per unit volume and unit mass are high, the pressure thermoforming method is investigated. From the results of experiments, it is found that thermo-fluid phenomena of wood powder in process of compaction forming occurs, which makes it impossible to form bio-solid fuels. Marginal boundaries of thermo-fluid phenomena for Japanese cedar and pruned branches of persimmon and ume are clarified. To inhibit the thermo-fluid phenomena in high temperature conditions, the press-form method at reduced pressure is developed.
  • Comminution Energy and Assessment of Transport Property of Semi-Carbonized Woody Biomass, T.Sawai, A.MORITA, T.IDA, M.FUCHIHATA, T.KAJIMOTO, M.KAJI, Proceedings of the International Conference on Power Engineering-09,   2009 11 , Refereed
  • Comminution and Combustion Properties of Mixture of Semi-Carbonized Woody Biomass and Coal, A. Morita, T. Ida, T. Sawai, K. Namba, M. Fuchihata, Proceedings of ISEM-08,   2008 12 , Refereed, 10.11395/jjsem.9.s36
  • Flow Structure of Liquid Film and Mechanism of Flooding in Counter-Current Two-Phase Flow, T. Sawai, M. Ohmasa, M. Kaji, Proceedings of ISEM-08,   2008 12 , Refereed
  • Stability of Annular Flow and Flow Pattern Transition to Churn Flow, T. Sawai, M. Kaji, M. Ohmasa, 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Fluid/Solid Science and Technology in Experimental Mechanics,   2007 09 , Refereed, 10.11395/jjsem.8.s25
  • Effect of Surfactant Additives on Frictional Pressure Gradient in Horizontal Two-Phase Flow, T.Sawai, M.Kaji, K.Shishino, Proceedings of ISEM-Sapporo,   2006 09 , Refereed, 10.11395/jjsem.7.s27
  • Assessment of Transport Property of Semi-Carbonized Forestry Biomass Fuel, 17, 1, 6,   2006 03
  • Report on Heat Transfer Seminar in Nara : Creation of New Industries by Cooperation between Industry and the Academic World, MORI Koji, SAWAI Toru, Journal of the Heat Transfar Society of Japan, 44, 189, 34, 37,   2005 11 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10016931791
  • Effect of Flow Orientation on Frictional Pressure Gradient and Interfacial Waves in Narrow Rectangular Channel, T.Sawai, M.Kaji, Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena,   2005 08 , Refereed
  • Relation between Heat Transfer and Frictional Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Bore Tubes, Proc. 16th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena,   2005 08
  • Frictional Pressure Drop Characteristics of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Bore Tubes, Memoirs of the School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology of Kinki University, 15, 65, 74,   2005 03
  • Effect of Surfactant Additives on Pressure Drop Reduction in Vertical Upward Two-Phase Flow, T.Sawai, M.Kaji, T.Urago, Proc. 5th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,   2004 06 , Refereed
  • Flow Pattern Transition Model from Annular to Churn Flow, Sawai Toru, Kaji Masuo, Nakanishi Shigeyasu, Memoirs of the School of B. O. S. T. of Kinki University, 13, 79, 86,   2004 02 28 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006423440
    Summary:In the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow, the annular flow is formed with continuous gas core and liquid film at high gas flow rates. As the gas flow rate decreases, the liquid film on the wall becomes unstable owing to a reduction of the gas-liquid interfacial shear stress, leading to the transition to the intermittent slug flow. The churn flow is observed in the intermediate region between the annular and slug flows under low liquid flow rate conditions, and characterized by the liquid oscillation with alternating upward and downward motions. In the present paper, a lumped parameter model is developed to predict the instability of annular flow and to simulate the non-linear oscillation in churn flow. The model is based on the one-dimensional two-fluid model. According to the assumption of uniform flow, the annular flow is expressed by a set of ordinary differential equations. From the comparison between the linear stability analysis and the flow pattern map observed experimentally, it is found that the annular-slug transition region corresponds to the stability boundary of the model, and the chum flow oscillation induces the flow pattern transition to the slug flow.
  • Effect of Acid Additives on “Semi-Carbonization” Pyrolysis of Woody Biomass and Transportation, T.Sawai, T.Kajimoto, T.Honjyo, H.Sano, T.Ida, M.Fuchihata, M.Kaji, M.Akasaka, Proceedings of the International Conference on Power Engineering-03,   2003 11 , Refereed
  • Interfacial Wave Characteristics of Accelerated Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in Horizontal and Vertical Rectangular Channels, M. Kaji, T.Sawai, K. Mori, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization, CD-ROM ID No.42,   2003 08 , Refereed
  • Effect of Flow Orientation on Gas-Liquid Interfacial Structure in Narrow Rectangular Channel, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization, CD-ROM ID No.38,   2003 08 , Refereed
  • Manufacturing, Energy and Environmental Education in Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, KAJI Masuo, SAWAI Toru, 伝熱 : journal of the Heat Transfer Society of Japan, 42, 172, 21, 22,   2003 01 , 10.11368/htsj1999.42.21, http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/80015782699
  • Flow Structure of Liquid Film in Narrow Rectangalar channel, T.Sawai, M.Kaji, Y.Kato, T.Nakajima,   2002 08 , Refereed
  • Behaviors of Bubble Formation from a Bottom Porous Nozzle in a Bath, M. Kaji, T. Sawai, K. Mori, M. Iguchi, Proceedings of Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Ⅱ,   2001 09 , Refereed
  • Flow structure and Pressure Gradient in churn Flow, T,Sawai, M.Kaji, Proceedings of Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Ⅲ,   2001 09 , Refereed
  • Oscillatory Characteristics of Flow Regime Transition Instability, T,Sawai, M.Kaji, S.Nakanishi, S.Yamauchi, Proceedings of the 4th JSME-KSME Thermal Engineering Conference,   2000 10 , Refereed
  • Spatio-Temporal Behavior of Interface in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Churn Flow, T,Sawai, M.Kaji, K.Mori, CD Rom Proceedings of The Millennium 9th International Symposium on Flow Visualization,   2000 08 , Refereed
  • Stability and Non-Linear Dynamics in Natural Circulation Loop at Low Pressure Condition, T,Sawai, M.Kaji, S.Nakanishi, S.Yamauchi, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation,   1999 05 , Refereed
  • Hydrodynamics of Churn Flow, T,Sawai, M.Kaji, S.Nakanishi, S.Yamauchi, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on MultiPhase Flow,   1998 06 , Refereed
  • Flow Oscillation Models for Churn Flow, T,Sawai, S.Nakanishi, M.Kaji, S.Yamauchi, Proceedings of the 2nd Japanese German Symposium on Multi-Phase Flow,   1997 09 , Refereed
  • A Study on Characteristics of Interfacial Structure of Liquid Film in Churn and Annular Regimes, S.Nakanishi, T.Sawai, Proceedings of the Japan-U.S. Seminar on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics,   1996 07 , Refereed
  • Non-Linear Behavior of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow, NAKANISHI Shigeyasu, SAWAI To'oru, 伝熱研究 = News of HTSJ, 35, 136, 35, 42,   1996 01 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10018605622
  • An Investigation on Time-Series Data Processing of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow, T.Sawai, S.Yamauchi, S.Nakanishi, Proceedings of the first International Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation,   1995 10 , Refereed
  • Non-equilibrium Behavior of Disturbance Waves on Evaporating Film Flow, S.Nakanishi, T.Sawai, Proceedings of the German-Japanese Symposium on Multi-Phase Flow,   1994 08 , Refereed
  • A Study on Fractal Structure of Interfacial Waves in Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow, T.Sawai, S.Yamauchi, S.Nakanishi, Proceedings of the Japan-U.S. Seminar on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics,   1992 07 , Refereed
  • Analysis of the Flow Reversal in Natural-Circulation Boiler (Part II :Results and discussions), Yamauchi Shoji, Sawai Tohru, Nakanishi Shigeyasu, Research report of Takamatsu National College of Technology, 26, 69, 76,   1991 03 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110000253878
  • Analysis of Flow Reversal in Natural-Circulation Boilers, S.Yamauchi, T.Sawai, S.Nakanishi, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Multi-phase flow and Heat Transfer,   1990 06 , Refereed
  • Analysis of the Flow Reversal in Natural-Circulation Boiler (Part I :Formulation), Yamauchi Shoji, Sawai Tohru, Nakanishi Shigeyasu, Research report of Takamatsu National College of Technology, 25, 27, 31,   1990 03 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110000253860
  • AN INVESTIGATION ON DATA PROCESSING METHOD OF DISTURBANCE WAVES (1stReport ; Smoothing, Method), SAWAI To'oru, YAMAUCHI Shoji, NAKANISHI Shigeyasu, Research report of Takamatsu National College of Technology, 24, 105, 112,   1989 03 , http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110000253847
  • Effect of Citric Acid Addition on Transportation of Semi-Carbonized Fuel, Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, Vol.83, pp.782-787.,   2004 , 10.3775/jie.83.782
  • Frictional Pressure Drop of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in Small Diameter Tubes , Proc. The 15th Int. Symp. on Transport Phenomena,   2004
  • Analogy betwen Heat Transfer and Fluid Friction of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Minichannel, Thermal Science & Engineering, Vol.11, No.6,   2003
  • Estimation of Gas and Liquid Flow rates in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow, Proceedings of IMECE '02 ,   2002
  • Flow Structure of Liquid Film in Narrow Rectangular Channel, Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Flow Visualization , F0178 ,   2002
  • Flow pattern Transition and Interfacial Wave Characteristics of Accelerated Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in a Horizontal Rectangular Channel, Proceedings of The Third International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows, 68-76,   2001
  • Flow Characteristics of Churn Flow at Low Liquid Flow Rate, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 67(654), 356-363,   2001 , 10.1299/kikaib.67.356
  • Stability and Non-Linear Dynamics in Natural Circalation Loop at Low Pressure Condition, Prceedings ot the second International symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Expreimentation, 1, 577-584,   1999
  • Boiling Heat Transfer and Dryout Characteristics in Herically Coiled Tubes, Proceedings of Expreimental Heat Transter, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 2, 649-656,   1997
  • Boiling Heat Transfer and Dryout Characteristics in Helically Coiled Tubes, Proceedings of Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 2, 649-656,   1997
  • "A Study on Characteristics of Interfacial Stracture of Liquid Film In Churn and Annular Flow", Prooceedings of Japan-V.S. Seminer on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics, 11-18,   1996
  • "A Investigation on Time-Series Data Processing of Gas-Liguid Two-Phase Flow", Prooceedings of International Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Experimeutation, 715-722,   1995
  • An Experimental Study on Chaotic Behavior of Thermalhydraulic Oscillation in an Evaporating Tube(共著), JSME International Journal, 38(2), 171-180,   1995 , 10.1299/jsmeb.38.171
  • Non-Equilibrium Behavior of Disturbance Waves on Evaporating Film Flow(共著), Proceedings of the German-Japanese Symposium on Multi-Phase Flow, 99-112,   1994
  • An Experimental Study on Chaotic Behavior of Thermohydraulic Oscillation in an Evaporating Tube, Proceedings of the Japan - U.S. Seminar on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics, 231-244,   1992
  • Analysis of Flow Reversal in Parallel Tubes in Natural-Circulation Boilers, Proceeding of International Conference on Multiphase Flows '91-Tsukuba, 1, 101-104,   1991
  • Criteria for Density Instability in Natural Circulation Boiler, Proceedings of Natural Circulation in Industrial Applications, 179-184,   1990
  • Analysis of the Flow Reversal in natural-Circulation Boiler, Japanese Journal of Multiphase Flow, 3(2), 120-130,   1989
  • An Experimental Study on Disturbance Waves in Boiling Two-Phase Flow, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering, 53(487), 1091-1096,   1987 , 10.1299/kikaib.53.1091
  • An Experimental Study on Disturbance Waves in Boiling Two-Phase Flow, HEAT TRANSFER Japanese Research, 15(3), 87-101,   1986
  • An Experimental Study on Disturbance Waves in Boiling Two-Phase Flow, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering, 51(463), 1026-1032,   1985 , 10.1299/kikaib.51.1026

Research Grants & Projects

  • Study on Biomass Energy
  • Study on of Interfacial Wave in Annular Flow in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow
  • Study on Thermalhydraulic Instability in Evaporating Tube