井田 民男 (イダ タミオ)

  • バイオコークス研究所 教授/所長
Last Updated :2024/04/23

コミュニケーション情報 byコメンテータガイド

  • コメント

    再生かつ持続可能なバイオエネルギーの開発に取り組んでいます。特に、バイオコークスと名付けた次世代固形燃料を開発し、地球規模での未来のエネルギーとしての実用化を目指しています。
  • 報道関連出演・掲載一覧

    <報道関連出演・掲載一覧> ●2023/3/6  日経産業新聞  鉄鋼業向けバイオコークスについて ●2021/4/6  TBS「あさチャン!」  バイオコークスについて ●2021/1/14  BS朝日「つながる絵本」  コーヒー豆かすをバイオコークスで焙煎したコーヒーについて ●2017/3/13  毎日新聞  バイオコークスについて ●2017/1/12  読売新聞  次世代燃料「バイオコークス」について ●2015/09/23  日本経済新聞  バイオコークスについて。 ●2015/05/14  毎日放送「ちちんぷいぷい」  バイオコークスについて。 ●2015/05/03  NHK Eテレ「サイエンスZERO」  バイオコークスについて。 ●2015/04/11  TBSテレビ「EARTH Lab~100年後の未来を考える~」  バイオコークスについて。 ●2014/11/16  TBSテレビ「夢の扉+」  バイオコークスを使った福島の汚染廃棄物減容化の実証実験等、これからの活動について。 ●2014/10/31  NHK総合「ニュースウォッチ9」  バイオコークス技術による除染廃棄物減容化実証事業について。 ●2014/10/22  テレビユー福島(福島県域放送)「TUF NEWS LIVE スイッチ!」  バイオコークス技術による除染廃棄物減容化実証事業について。 ●2014/10/17  NHK総合(東北地方)「サンドウィッチマンのどうなってる?」  バイオコークスについて。

研究者情報

学位

  • 工学(博士)(豊橋技術科学大学)

ホームページURL

J-Global ID

プロフィール

  • 平成27年 日本鋳造工学会 豊田賞 受賞

    平成27年 日本鋳造工学会 研究奨励賞 受賞

    平成28年 近畿大学メディアアワード特別賞 受賞

    平成29年 日本機械学会 環境工学部門 環境工学シンポジウム功労賞 受賞

    平成29年 日本実験力学会 技術賞 受賞


    平成28年度 近畿大学・私立大学研究ブランディング事業に参画


    経済産業省・平成26年度地球温暖化対策技術普及等推進事業「タイにおけるバイオコークス技術の導入によるJCMプロジェクト実現可能性調査」

    研究代表者:みずほ情報総研㈱:再委託研究代表者:井田 民男


    環境省・平成30~31年度CO2排出削減対策強化誘導型技術開発・実証事業「多原料バイオコークスによる一般廃棄物処理施設及び鋳物製造業でのCO2排出量削減の長期実証」

    研究開発代表者:石炭エネルギーセンター

研究キーワード

  • 再生可能エネルギー、燃焼工学、マイクロフレーム   Combustion Engineering   

現在の研究分野(キーワード)

    再生かつ持続可能なバイオエネルギーの開発に取り組んでいます。特に、バイオコークスと名付けた次世代固形燃料を開発し、地球規模での未来のエネルギーとしての実用化を目指しています。

研究分野

  • ものづくり技術(機械・電気電子・化学工学) / 熱工学

学歴

  •         - 1987年   豊橋技術科学大学   工学研究科   エネルギー工学専攻
  •         - 1987年   豊橋技術科学大学   Graduate School of Engineering   Department of Energy Engineering
  •         - 1985年   豊橋技術科学大学   工学部   エネルギー工学課程
  •         - 1985年   豊橋技術科学大学   School of Engineering   Department of Energy Engineering

所属学協会

  • 日本エネルギー学会   エネルギー・資源学   日本燃焼学会   日本機械学会   The Japan Institute of Energy   Japan Society of Enrgy and Resources   Combustion Society of Japan   The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering   

研究活動情報

論文

  • Nur Syahirah Kamal Baharin; Nami Tagami-Kanada; Supitchaya Cherdkeattikul; Hirofumi Hara; Tamio Ida
    Renewable Energy 222 119926 - 119926 2024年02月
  • Nami Tagami-Kanada; Chinatsu Kondo; Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka; Yuji Nakamura; Tamio Ida
    Fuel 350 128788 - 128788 2023年10月
  • Supitchaya Cherdkeattikul; Yusuke Morisawa; Nami Tagami-Kanada; Tamio Ida
    Fuel 342 127835 - 127835 2023年06月
  • Nur Syahirah Kamal Baharin; Supitchaya Cherdkeattikul; Nami Kanada; Hirofumi Hara; Satoru Mizuno; Toru Sawai; Manabu Fuchihata; Tamio Ida
    Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 2022年11月
  • Nami Tagami-Kanada; Koji Yoshikuni; Satoru Mizuno; Toru Sawai; Manabu Fuchihata; Tamio Ida
    Renewable Energy 2022年08月
  • Nami TAGAMI-KANADA; Satoru MIZUNO; Supitchaya CHERDKEATTIKUL; Tamio IDA
    Mechanical Engineering Journal 8 1 20 - 00391 2021年
  • Cherdkeattikul S; Morisawa Y; Ida T
    Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry 2019年12月 [査読有り]
  • Nami TAGAMI; Tamio IDA
    Mechanical Engineering Journal 6 1 18 - 00294 2019年
  • Toru SAWAI; Ichiro KATAYAMA; Tamio IDA
    Advanced Experimental Mechanics 3 65 - 71 2018年08月 [査読有り]
     
    Commercial wood pellets are upgraded by the pyrolysis treatment in a wide temperature range of 378-773 K that includes both the torrefaction and carbonization temperature conditions. The trade-off relationship between apparent density and higher heating value of pyrolyzed wood pellets (PWP) is confirmed, which implies the existence of an optimum pyrolysis condition to produce PWP. The progression of pyrolysis is found to be identified by the mass yield of PWP. Noticing the color variation of PWP with the progression of pyrolysis, the relationship between the mass yield and CIELAB color parameters is examined. Two experimental correlations to estimate the mass yield are presented using the color coordinate, b* and the hue angle, h. From the comparison between predicted mass yields and experimental data, it is found that the experimental correlation using the hue angle can evaluate the mass yield with an accuracy of around ±10% in a wide range of mass yield between 0.2 and 1. Therefore, it is concluded that the hue angle can be one of the useful indicators for a nondestructive inspection method of PWP.
  • Effect of moisture content, forming temperature and structural components on Biocoke solidification from various biomass resources
    Nami TAGAMI; Tamio IDA
    日本エネルギー学会誌 DOI 10 1 - 10 2018年04月 [査読有り]
  • 田上奈実; 中館朋江; 水野諭; 井田民男
    Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy (Web) 97 1 1‐7(J‐STAGE)  2018年
  • Nami Tagami; Tomoe Nakadate; Satoru Mizuno; Tamio Ida
    JOURNAL OF THE JAPAN INSTITUTE OF ENERGY 97 1 1 - 7 2018年01月 
    This paper considers the possibility of applying indicators of coal as indicators of torrefied biomass characteristics. Used indicators of coal are fuel ratio which shows the combustion characteristics and coal band (van Krevelen diagram) which shows the degree of coalification. Torrefied biomass heated at different temperature are prepared by using green tea. Their changes of fuel ratio and chemical composition by coal band are considered. The results show the following findings. In the heating temperature from 293 K to 640K, fuel ratio is 0.38 to 2.07. There are the each negative correlation between yield of weight and fuel ratio when fuel ratios are a range of 0.38 to 0.65 and more than 0.65. When fuel ratio is 0.65, there is an inflection point. It is suggested that the volatile components released by thermal decomposition are different on the border line of the inflection point. By the application of coal band, chemical reactions are estimated during torrefaction process. However, it is difficult to decide what kind of reactions is occurring when the release of oxygen by decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction and the release of hydrogen by demethanization and dehydrogenation reaction occur simultaneously.
  • SAWAI Toru; KATAYAMA Ichiro; IDA Tamio; IMAMURA Hiroki; KAJIMOTO Takeshi
    Mechanical Engineering Journal 4 1 16 - 00320-16-00320 一般社団法人 日本機械学会 2017年 

    Noticing the color variation of torrefied woody biomass with pyrolysis process, a non-invasive method to estimate energy properties such as elemental contents, higher heating value and energy yield is investigated. When the torrefied biofuel is produced and utilized, the quality control concerning energy properties is indispensable. The energy properties of torrefied woody biomass are correlated with its mass yield, and the relationship between mass yields and colorimetric values defined by CIELAB is experimentally examined. The results obtained for torrefied Japanese cedar are as follows. (1) The energy properties of torrefied Japanese cedar are expressed by simple relations of mass yield. The optimum torrefaction condition to produce torrefied biofuel can be evaluated by the mass yield. (2) To estimate the mass yield of torrefied Japanese cedar, the experimental correlations with colorimetric values are proposed. In the case of the sap-wood and heart-wood samples for brightness, L* above 45, the mass yield is correlated with L*, and in the case of the sap-wood, heart-wood and bark samples for L* below 45, the mass yield is correlated with color coordinate, a*. From the comparison between predicted mass yields and experimental data, it is found that the proposed experimental correlations can estimate the mass yield within an accuracy of ±10%. Therefore, the energy properties of torrefied Japanese cedar is easy to be checked by using the present non-invasive estimation method with colorimetric values.

  • 大橋 憲; 笹内 謙一; 井田 民男; 水野 諭
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 12 91 - 92 一般社団法人 日本エネルギー学会 2017年 

    Bio-coke is highly densified biomass fuel developed early in this century. The first commercial sized manufacturing equipment, that materials are heated and cooled at same part in the reactor with press from one direction in batch typed operation, was installed in 2011. For saving the energy during manufacturing and construction cost, newly equipment have been developed. For the environmental impact assessment in particular global warming, life cycle CO2 that involves loading raw material, pretreatment, shaping Bio-coke, loading Bio-cokes and burning Bio-coke was calculated in the cases which Bio-coke was made by these equipment.

  • 井田民男; 渕端学; 水野諭
    実験力学 17 3 186‐190(J‐STAGE) - 190 日本実験力学会 2017年
  • 麓隆行; 中館朋江; 吉國幸治; 水野諭; 井田民男
    実験力学 17 3 198‐203(J‐STAGE) - 203 日本実験力学会 2017年
  • 粉体バイオコークスの燃焼特性に及ぼすトレファクション処理の影響
    田上 奈実; ファイザ ビンティ; モハマド ノール; 中館 朋江; 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 5 3 171 - 178 2016年10月 [査読有り]
  • 大橋憲; 笹内謙一; 水野諭; 井田民男; 山西弘城
    スマートプロセス学会誌 5 3 185‐190 - 190 高温学会 2016年05月
  • 大橋憲; 笹内謙一; 水野諭; 井田民男; 渕端学
    スマートプロセス学会誌 5 3 198‐206 - 206 高温学会 2016年05月
  • 川村淳浩; 井田民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 5 2 140 - 144 高温学会 2016年03月 [査読有り]
  • Nami TAGAMI; Faiezah binti Mohd Nor; Tomoe NAKADATE; Kunihiko NAMBA; Tamio IDA
    Journal of Smart Processing 5 3 171 - 178 2016年
  • MIZUNO Satoru; IDA Tamio; FUCHIHATA Manabu; NAMBA Kunihiko
    Mechanical Engineering Journal 3 1 15 - 00441-15-00441 一般社団法人 日本機械学会 2016年 
    Various sizes of high-density biomass briquette, named 'Bio-coke,' were produced from spent green tea grounds. The mechanical properties at room temperature of the Bio-coke samples were investigated using a compression testing machine. From the results, the relationship between the specimen size of Bio-coke and the ultimate compressive strength at room temperature showed that the ultimate compressive strength depends on the specimen size of Bio-coke. The maximum value of the ultimate compressive strength among the different specimen sizes of Bio-coke was at 67 MPa, obtained from the 12-mm diameter sample. In addition, at 12 mm diameter or smaller, there is hardly any difference in the ultimate compressive strengths measured. Hence, the cold compressive strength properties are divided into two groups based on the uniformity of the structure of the main components along the horizontal cross section of a Bio-coke. Results indicate that the state of the structure, composed of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, and lignin, appears to be consistent resulting from uniform permeation conditions at the 12-mm diameter or smaller samples. Meanwhile, at diameters of 20 mm or larger, the condition of the periphery of the samples were not consistent with that of the middle region because of the temperature, stress gradient and number of void occurring inside the Bio-coke caused by specimen size effect.
  • 大橋憲; 笹内謙一; 水野諭; 井田民男; 山西弘城
    スマートプロセス学会誌 4 6 307 - 311 一般社団法人 スマートプロセス学会 (旧高温学会) 2015年11月 
      In Fukushima prefecture, the full of temporal space for scrap wood, gathered deciduous leaf and wood contaminated with radioactive materials makes debris disposal not proceed now. It is considered that debris should be downsized and be stored safety until carrying to ISF (Interim Storage Facility). It is known that Biocoke has high density and poor reactivity, so we are confident that Biocoke technology is suitable to store the debris stably. In this study, leach of heavy metal and radioactive cesium from Biocoke into water was investigated in order to apply the Biocoke technology for storing debris for long time. An elution impact into landfill by combustion ash of Biocoke has been shown allowable value or less. In Elution testing of radioactive cesium from Biocoke to water, it could be demonstrated to suppress to 1/4 by Biocoke technology.
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 10 125 - 126 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2015年 
    As for forest cesium(Cs) decontamination total system, there are 3 gates: (1) Entry: recovering the fallen leaves → (2) Pathway: volume reduction and storage (due to consolidation and carbonization) → (3) Exit: ashing (by burning), After the proposal, 2 years have elapsed, measure the problems in each step has become apparent. Cs has a strongly being concentrated on the leaves in plant. Fallen leaves recovery would still be the strongest means to ongoing forest-Cs decontamination. (2) Huge volume reduction is required. The volume reduction of them, is firstly consolidation; secondly carbonization; finally ashing. (3) At the end of the processing, that should be water-extraction for the ash. But the needs are not yet imminent.
  • 川村 淳浩; 高橋 厚貴; 中館 朋江; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 10 61 - 62 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2015年 
    When high ash content biomass solid fuel is applied to small scale combustion appliances, performance and safety may be prevented because of the clinker formation. This study is aimed for investigation of the clinker formation mechanism of high ash content biomass solid fuel. This is a plan carried out by a combustion comparison experiment between normal pellet and bio-coke. The experimental conditions to make bio-coke of the same size are looked for now by raw materials same as a normal pellet. A combustion comparison experiment machine is produced successively, and, through the combustion comparison experiment of the two fuels, the clinker formation mechanism is going to be prevented.
  • Satoru Mizuno; Tamio Ida; Manabu Fuchihata; Edmundo Sanchez; Koji Yoshikuni
    INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION ON PACKAGING AND INTEGRATION OF ELECTRONIC AND PHOTONIC MICROSYSTEMS, 2015, VOL 3 2015年 [査読有り]
     
    We aimed to effectively use unutilized rice straw by producing Bio-coke, which is a new briquette (in the rest of this document referred to as the BIC) with high density and hardness, from rice straw with various conditions based on initial water content and processing temperature and evaluated characteristics of rice straw BIC. First of all, the apparent density of BIC was calculated from its weight and volume, and the cold compressive strength for each BIC was measured. From the results, it showed that the relationship between apparent density and maximum compressive strength derived from the compression test had a positive correlation. Furthermore, the hot compressive strength of the BIC produced with 5% initial water content and 453K processing temperature was measured. The rice straw BIC had a maximum compressive strength of 4.8MPa at a high temperature of 973K. This hot maximum compressive strength is equal to about one third of the hot maximum compressive strength of coal coke, which is 12MPa. Also, it was determined that the maximum compressive strength of rice straw BIC is highest on both cold and hot compression tests, and BIC produced from agricultural biomass like rice straw and rice husk had higher maximum compressive strength at room and high temperatures than BIC produced from other materials. Thus, it seemed that fiber and silica contained in agricultural biomass helps maintain of structure of BIC.
  • 渕端 学; 赤藤 雄也; 水野 諭; 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 5 295 - 301 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2014年09月 
    Recently, biomasses attract much attention as a renewable energy resource. Biocoke, hereinafter called BIC, is one of the solid biomass fuels that are made from woody or herbaceous biomass by heat and compression processes. BIC is highly dense, has high hardness, has a high energy density, and is expected to be an alternative to coal coke. In the present study, the carbonization and combustion properties of a green tea BIC and a cypress BIC are experimentally examined. The experimental results show that the carbon residue of the BICs is higher than that of raw wood in spite being of the same material. Further, the weight reduction curve during the combustion process of the BIC carbide is similar to that of charcoal when the carbonization temperature is higher than 673 K. Consequently, it is considered that the BIC can maintain adequate hardness even if it is carbonized at the upper portion of a cupola furnace, and burns as an alternative to coal coke in the coke bed at the bottom of the cupola furnace.
  • 村田 博敏; 土中 夏樹; 水野 諭; サンチェス エドムンドJr; 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 5 276 - 282 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2014年09月 
    In recent years, the development of bio-energy in cooperation with an ASEAN country is a very important issue for both participating countries, which would be able to build a win-win relationship. ASEAN countries have a large amount of unused biomass resources. However, raw biomass business does not seem to work well based on experience unless a new technology is introduced. The Bio-coke (referred to as BIC) is a domestic energy technology in Japan. In this study, Bio-coke made from unused resources of fruits that are imported in large quantities from ASEAN countries is being focused. The compressive strength measured for Banana peel Bio-coke was 98.4 MPa at initial moisture of 1.81 mass% while the Orange peel Bio-coke measured 167.0 MPa at initial moisture of 0.52 mass%. Meanwhile, the apparent Yang's modulus ratio based on cool compressive test for the former is about 4.0 GPa and 4.5GPa for the latter. Through hot compressive test at 973 K, 8 MPa was recorded for Banana peel Bio-coke and about 4.2 MPa for Orange peel Bio-coke.
  • 水野 諭; ハミドゥン オマービン; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 麓 隆行; 難波 邦彦
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 5 269 - 275 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2014年09月 
    People in the world have been eating rice for a long period of time, especially in Asian countries including Japan that considers rice as its staple food. Like many agricultural products, agricultural waste like rice husk and rice straw are a big disposal problem. One of the solutions for this problem is solidification. It is better to use the solid as fuel for heating and create a cycle of local production for local consumption. In this study, we established formation temperature and particle size as parameters and produced solid fuel (hereinafter referred to as BIC) from rice husk with high-density and high-hardness solidification technology. The apparent density from weight and volume of BIC and assessed compressive strength of BIC with compression test under room and high temperature was calculated. From derived results physical and mechanical properties were considered. Results showed that rice husk of small particle size had better lignin reaction than large one. However, it is also revealed that the maximum compressive strength at room and high temperature was both weak in the case of crushing the particle size of the rice husk too small.
  • 麓 隆行; 水野 諭; 渕端 学; 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 5 302 - 308 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2014年09月 
    The high density high hardness solid fuel (bio-coke) developed by Ida et al. is being hoped for as a solid fuel for heating machineries such as a heavy oil farm boiler. The diameter of the bio-coke made in high pressure and high temperature has a range of 8mm to 100mm. In the case of the 100mm diameter bio-coke specimen, neither pressure nor the temperature is uniform because of thermal conductivity of the biomass and the friction against the cylinder wall. With these reasons, the qualities of the inside of the specimen do not become uniform. Through X-ray CT, nondestructive measurement of the spatial distribution of the x-ray absorption coefficient in the specimen can be done. The x-ray absorption coefficient changes depending on the density of the material, hence, the applicability of this procedure to estimate the X-ray CT quality distribution of a large bio-coke was examined. Results showed that the CT values obtained through X-ray CT have strong relationships with the density distribution in the specimen. Moreover, the CT values were confirmed to be able to effectively estimate the quality distribution of the inside of a large bio-coke.
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 9 10 - 11 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2014年 
    At system of radioactive cesium(Cs) decontamination in the forest, there are 3 bottlenecks. (1) Entry: Without concentrating Cs, the system fall into unsustainable: (2) Pathway: Transporting and/or storing the Cs contaminants is important. (3) Exit: Extreme reduction of volume of final Cs contaminants is required. Conventional process of decontamination, is a separation and transport the polluted soil. This is not a decontamination but migration. Further, temporary storage of the soil is full already. Here is the proposal to overcome each barrier, as follows: (1) The suction of the forestal Cs, by using Cs- enriched leaves.: (2) volume reduction (→1/3) of the leaf litter by the semi-carbonizing, in order to facilitate the storage and transport. (3) Mild combustion of the carbon leads control of Cs volatilization, and the Cs is concentrated onto residual ash.
  • 菅野 明芳; 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 2 115 - 122 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2014年
  • 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 1 40 - 46 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2014年
  • 村田 博敏; 吉國 幸治; 水野 諭; サンチェス エドムンドJr.; 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男
    スマートプロセス学会誌 3 5 283 - 288 一般社団法人 スマートプロセス学会 (旧高温学会) 2014年 
      Currently, various energies such as fossil fuels and nuclear power are considerable expenditures. Resource depletion and environmental issues are taking place by activation of various problems and economic activity due to population growth in developing countries. However, in order for society to develop, energy, such as natural energy, is required have been studied for this purpose. A variety of energy including conventional type energy is needed. In this study, using Bio-coke that has attracted attention as a natural energy, a research was conducted using rice bran, which is an unused biomass in Thailand. By adding rice bran to 2-mm pulverized wood waste materials in making Bio-coke, it was found that Bio-coke density increased proportionally with increase in rice bran ratio. Results also showed that by adding rice bran in the raw material, it is possible to simultaneously improve both the gross calorific value and cold compressive strength. Moreover, reduction in environmental impact is also possible in the production process by optimizing the production conditions.
  • FUCHIHATA Manabu; IDA Tamio; KUWANA Kazunori; MIZUNO Satoru
    実験力学 : journal of JSEM 13 s45 - s50 The Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics 2013年07月 
    A micro laminar premixed flame stabilized by an annular pilot flame is observed. The flame is formed even on a burner whose diameter is 0.3 mm. However, the shape of the flame formed on the burner whose diameter is less than 1mm and at around the lowermost flow rate is nearly spherical. It is similar to the appearance of a micro diffusion flame. The flame formed on the burner which has a diameter less than 1 mm is not considered a propagating flame, because a typical laminar propagating flame has a structure thickness that is more than 0.5 mm. The flame structure variation and the uppermost and the lowermost flow rates that the flame could be formed stably were observed. Consequently, it is supposed that the flame formed on a burner with a submillimeter diameter is dominated by the diffusion mixing of oxygen and methane from the main premixture flow, and heat and radicals from the pilot flow. The extinction mechanism of the micro premixed flame was examined and the scale effect on the extinction limit and the flame structure were considered.
  • 渕端 学; 井田 民男; 桑名 一徳; 水野 諭
    実験力学 : journal of JSEM 13 2 172 - 177 The Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics 2013年06月 
    A micro laminar premixed flame formed on a burner with pilot flame is observed. The flame is stabilized even on the burner whose diameter is 0.4 mm. However, the shape of the flame formed on the burner whose diameter is less than 1mm and at around the lowermost flow rate is near spherical. It is similar to the appearance of micro diffusion flames. On the other hand, the flame formed on the burner whose diameter is less than 0.6 mm is not considered as propagating flame, because typical laminar propagating flame has a structure more than 0.6 mm thickness at this condition. We observed the flame structure variation and the uppermost and the lowermost flow rates which the flame could be formed stably. It is, consequently, supposed that the flame formed on the burner whose diameter is submillimeter is dominated by the diffusion mixing of oxygen and methane from the premixture and high temperature heat flux from the pilot gas flow. We, further, examined the flame structure and the extinction mechanism of the premixed microflame and tried to explain scale effects on the extinction limit and the flame structure variation.
  • 水野 諭; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 難波 邦彦; 澤井 徹
    実験力学 : journal of JSEM 13 2 190 - 193 The Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics 2013年06月 
    Primarily, Japan has very little sources of coal, oil, and natural gas. As a result these primary energy sources are imported from other countries. The development of Japans domestic primary energy sources is necessary to reduce its dependency on foreign energy import. Above all, energy derived from biomass sources are sustainable energy resources. In this study, various sizes of high-density biomass briquette named 'Bio-coke, whose technology was based on our patent (PAT.-No.4088933), were produced from green tea grounds. The physical properties at high temperature of each size of Bio-coke were studied, and their maximum compressive strength and Youngs modulus were estimated by a compression test at a temperature of 973K. From the results obtained, the relationship between the size of Bio-coke and the maximum compressive strength or Youngs modulus could be approximated by a linear function or an exponential function.
  • 中村祐二; 井田民男; 桑名一徳; 関本孝三; 平沢太郎; 渕端学; 松岡常吉; 水野諭
    実験力学 13 2 158 - 163 The Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics 2013年06月 [査読有り]
     
    This paper proposes the strategy or methodology how to achieve a scaling of flames; that is, the law to attain the ratio of flame size to flame thickness remains as constant in variety size of flame (thus, a larger flame has thicker flame zone while a smaller flame has thinner flame zone, yet the overall geometric similarity is sustained). Considering simple analysis the possible strategy to fulfill this requirement is discussed. It turns out that the combination with low-gravity and dilution would be key factors to attain the geometric similarity of the flame including its structure. We will verify this issue in future by means of low-gravity test facility (experimental approach) and numerical simulation with multi-step kinetics model (numerical approach).
  • 渕端 学; 赤藤 雄也; 水野 諭; 井田 民男; 足立 佑平
    スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing 2 2 88 - 93 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2013年03月 
    Biomass is one of the sustainable energy sources and is the most suitable natural energy for storage and transport. We are suggesting a high hardness biomass briquette made from any plant biomass as an alternative coal coke. The high hardness biomass briquette is named 'Bio coke', described as 'BIC' below, and it achieves 10 to 20% substitution of coal coke for practical cupola furnace use. We, in the present study, examined the influence of composition on combustion property of BIC made from coffee residues. The coffee residues were assorted to outer skin (outer skin and pulp mixture, described as 'OS' below), inner skin (parchment and silver skin mixture, described as 'IS' below) and coffee bean grounds (instant coffee production residue, described as 'IC' below). BIC specimens were composed of IC100%, IC50%+OS50% and IC50%+IS50%, OS100% and IS100%. Measurement of ignition delay (time from heating start to flaming combustion start), duration time of flaming combustion and char combustion, and thermogravimetry were conducted under 698K air environment. As a result, the ignition delay and the duration time of char combustion were affected by not only combustion property of each component but crack generation condition during heating process. The ignition delay and the duration time of char combustion were shorten due to enlargement of reaction surface area caused by the crack generation. It is, additionally, considered that the crack generation condition could be controlled by mixing of components which have different thermal decomposition and combustion properties.
  • 井田 民男; 高木 亮伍; 水野 諭; サンチェス エドムンド; 難波 邦彦
    スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing 2 2 83 - 87 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2013年03月 
    At present, Japan is even in a bigger energy problem since the oil crisis. Conversion to renewable energy has become an urgent need among many problems in Japan, one in particular, the carbon-dioxide emission that is increasing at an alarming rate. Bio-coke was developed in this laboratory and is reaching commercial level. This study discusses the relationship between the retention time of formed Bio-coke and its specific surface area. During the formation time of about 5 minutes, a specific surface area of 0.5 m<SUP>2</SUP>/g is achieved, and a cold compressive strength of 60MPa is attained. When the specific gravity reaches at least 1.395, the specific surface area is reduced to about 0.5 m<SUP>2</SUP>/g.
  • 冨田 義弘; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 水野 諭
    鋳造工学 全国講演大会講演概要集 162 60 - 60 公益社団法人 日本鋳造工学会 2013年
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 22 96 - 97 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2013年 
    Cesium(Cs) removal from contaminated forests, is difficult in general. It is well known that Cs is concentrated in fallen leaves of hardwood. Thus, by collecting the fallen leaves, the forest can be decontaminated successfully. The next challenge is disposal of the leaves. Incineration leads to volatile of Cs. In this paper, we try to remain the Cs in the residual ash, by charcoal burning at low temperature
  • 草本系バイオマスを原料とする高密度・高硬度固形物の成形特性
    水野 諭; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 難波 邦彦; 加子坂 篤志; 藤田 修
    91 41 - 47 2012年04月 [査読有り]
  • 渕端 学; 阿部 周祐; 井田 民男; 澤井 徹; 難波 邦彦; 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛
    スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing 1 2 58 - 62 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2012年03月 
    Biomass is one of the sustainable energy sources and is the most suitable natural energy for storage and transport. Woody pellet is a typical biomass fuel and is accessible in most places around the world. Its transportation efficiency, however, is not so high, due to lack of energy density. In order to improve the efficiency of woody biomass energy transportation, the 'semi-carbonization pelletizing' method was adopted. Semi-carbonized pellet,' Biomass Carbonized Densified Fuel' (BCDF), is not a fully carbonized woody biomass, but is an intermediate of desiccated woody biomass and charcoal. Although charcoal is a high energy density fuel in J/kg and is widely being used, about a half of the original energy is lost during the carbonization process. Semi-carbonization is a balanced method for energy density improvement and energy yield. The process parameters of semi-carbonization, however, are so many and are not examined yet. In the present study, the effect of water content in woody biomass on the energy density and energy yield of semi-carbonized pellet was examined. Results show that water content diminish the process temperature range for improvement of energy transport efficiency compared to an absolute dry condition.
  • 後藤 亮介; 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男; 水野 諭
    スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing 1 2 71 - 78 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2012年03月 
    The development of new energy sources have been advancing due to global warming and exhaustion of fossil fuels. The biomass fuel is one of these energy sources and is expected from the viewpoint of carbon neutral agricultural and biomass waste recycling and thermal recovery. Bio-coke is an alternate fuel of coal coke and is made by heating organic waste while being compressed at high pressures. The ignitability of Bio-coke worsens by high density. This study was an attempt to produce Bio-coke added with waste glycerin that is generated from the manufacturing process of bio-diesel fuel. The gasification characteristic of the fuels was examined by thermogravimetric analysis, while the stress-strain characteristic was examined by a high-temperature compression testing machine. The ignition and combustion characteristics of the fuels were observed in a fall-type electric furnace. Results show that Bio-coke can be made with the addition of waste glycerin. The gasification of the resulting fuel was promoted with the increase in amount of added waste glycerin. Moreover, the combustibility of the fuel was also promoted and the ignition delay time and burnout time became shorter.
  • 鳥居 祐介; 水野 諭; 西 健治; 市野 善三; 大政 光史; 澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学
    スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing 1 2 63 - 70 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2012年03月 
    The utilization of unused biomass such as logging residues and broadleaf trees has come to attract attention to protect forests and satoyamas (a Japanese term for undeveloped woodlands near populated areas) in Japan. In this study, the modification of bio-coke fuels as an alternative to coal coke is investigated by using bamboo and Japanese cedar, which are the typical domestic woody biomass in forests and satoyamas. To improve the compressive strength under high temperature environment and the heating value of bio-coke, carbonized Japanese cedar is mixed with bamboo. The effect of the carbide mixture on the forming characteristics of bio-coke such as density, compressive strength, and heating value are experimentally clarified. The results obtained in the present study are as follows: (1) the density of bio-coke increases with increase in forming temperature and forming pressure, but is reduced by the addition of carbide as the thermoplastic polymer is reduced (2) the increase in carbide reduces the compressive strength under normal temperature environment and improves the compressive strength under high temperature environment. When the carbide content was 30%, the compressive strength under high temperature environment was 3.26MPa. (3) The addition of carbide is an effective way to improve the compressive strength under high temperature environment and to enhance the heating value of bio-coke.
  • 伊東 弘行; 酒井 雄人; 中原 毅朗; 井田 民男; 藤田 修
    スマートプロセス学会誌 = Journal of smart processing 1 2 36 - 43 Smart Processing Society for Materials, Environment & Energy (High Temperature Society of Japan) 2012年03月
  • 村田 博敏; 井田 民男; 水野 諭
    鋳造工学 全国講演大会講演概要集 161 46 - 46 公益社団法人 日本鋳造工学会 2012年
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 8 68 - 69 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2012年 
    How to get a new wood chip ,as a pellet-substitute? Chip-fuel has a difficulty on the feed flow, at the fuel-silo. As an indicator of the particles-sliding on sloped surface, the repose angle of the various particles should be adopted. considering the inter-particle friction.
  • 川村 淳浩; 井田 民男; 大野 司郎; 麓 隆行; 水野 諭; 冨田 義弘; 渕端 学
    石炭科学会議発表論文集 49 84 - 85 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2012年 
    From the perspective of the matter cycle, a method to use biomass combustion ash as a fertilizer in the production of seedlings and silviculture is suggested. Ash from silica-rich biomass has high solubility due to its silicate microstructure, which makes it very effective as a fertilizer. However, the solubility is lost, along with the porous microstructure, when combustion ash is crystallized in a high temperature oxidative atmosphere. In addition, because the furnace is commonly made of stainless steel that contains chromic element and a high percentage of water is included in biomass, unlike fossil fuel, harmful hexavalent chromium may be found in the combustion ash. In this report, the progress of a study for the reduction of ash crystallization is described.
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 21 150 - 151 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2012年 
    This paper aims at alternative pellet, using by shaped chip. Pellet is the most developed wood fuel as for a smooth fuel supply control performance. But it has a big energy loss on the producing process. In chips, the whiskers and irregularities would interfere with the supply control. We expect that a chip can be improved the fuel supply performance, if the chip shape closes to pellet.
  • 井田 民男; 水野 諭; 渕端 学; 小田 昭浩; 星 靖; 村田 博敏
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 7 28 - 29 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2012年 
    The regulation governing organic waste processing has been enforced in recent years. For example, the enforcement of food recycling and emission control of livestock industry wastes has resulted in about 20 million tons of organic wastes produced annually in Japan. As well, Aomori prefecture has been holding grave problems which hang low of local area economic and doesn't find out effective solution for unutilized biomass. This study is based on alternative coal coke technology which the authors developed. The method of production technology of Bio-coke follows our patent (PAT.-No.4088933). In this study, we used an apple juice grounds as unutilized biomass in Aomori prefecture to produce Bio-coke. We discuss the relation between cold and hot compressive strength derived by the new proposal compression test.
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 7 12 - 13 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2012年 
    Optimized process for remediation of damaged land by tsunami-seawater, was investigated. It should be strongly depending on the locational factors such as flooded depth & area, land-subsidence, and annual rainfall etc. The necessary elapsed year for desalination is depending on social condition. The desalt degree can be changed by the target (rice field, pasturage ,or forestry). The optimal target is pasturage.
  • Kuwana Kazunori; Mizuno Satoru; Ida Tamio; FUCHIHATA Manabu
    実験力学 : journal of JSEM 11 SS13 - SS18 日本実験力学会 2011年08月 
    The fuel jet velocity at the extinction limit of a jet diffusion flame can be as large as that at the blowoff limit under microflame conditions, requiring detailed understanding of extinction mechanism. This paper first discusses a simple theory to describe the extinction mechanism of jet diffusion microflame. An activation-energy asymptotics technique is adopted with the use of constant-density approximation to predict the extinction limit. Results of experiments for different burner diameters are then presented to compare theoretical predictions with experimental observations.
  • Ida Tamio; Fuchihata Manabu; Mizuno Satoru
    実験力学 : journal of JSEM 11 SS103 - SS106 日本実験力学会 2011年08月 
    Micro-jet diffusion flames, formed by a minute burner of a few hundreds or a few tens micrometer inner diameter, should be interesting and useful, partly because they resemble micro-gravity flames and partly because they provide some insight into the mixing and chemical kinetic processes occurring in turbulent diffusion flames. The aim of the present experiment is to collect preliminary information on the characteristics and experimental techniques of micro-jet flames. Attention was paid to the effect of Reynolds number (Re) at the burner exit, and the range of Reynolds number that a stable flame could be formed was determined. CH-band images were recorded by direct photography, and compared with laser shadowgraph images.
  • Mizuno Satoru; Ida Tamio; Fuchihata Manabu
    実験力学 : journal of JSEM 11 SS19 - SS24 The Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics 2011年08月 
    We produced high-density solid biomass (hereafter called Bio-coke) from broccoli, dead cherry tree leaves, and seed of mango based on our patent (PAT.-No.4088933) as one of the utilization methods of various unutilized biomass. The compressive strength of each kind of Bio-coke under room temperature was measured with a compression testing machine. The experimental results showed that the ultimate strength was related to the carbon content of broccoli, seed of mango, and dead cherry tree leaves, and the relations were close to linear.
  • 伊東 弘行; 酒井 雄人; 井田 民男; 藤田 修
    日本燃焼学会誌 = Journal of the Combustion Society of Japan 53 164 63 - 68 日本燃焼学会 2011年05月
  • 井田 民男; 水野 諭; 渕端 学
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 6 34 - 35 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2011年 
    The potential of biomass resource is equivalent of approximately 5% of the primary energy aggregate supply in Japan if available untapped biomass resource can be used effectively. Therefore, the unused biomass resource is expected to reduce the degree of dependence to fossil resources. In this study, we targeted woody biomass, agricultural residues and food waste which occupied a large part of annual available quantity of energy and produced high-hardness solid fuel (named Bio-coke) from various kinds of biomass with heating and pressing method based on our patent (PAT.-No.4088933). We have measured the compressive strength of Bio-coke to derive its physical properties at room temperature, and also examined the physical properties of Bio-coke at high temperature (973K) with a particular compression testing machine as assuming its usage under high temperature atmosphere. We contemplated the relation between the compressive strength at room temperature and high temperature for Bio-coke. As a result, there are not any relationships between the compressive strength at room temperature and high temperature. It is conjectured that the difference of the compressive strength between room temperature and high temperature proceeds from the component percentages and organization structure of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin for each biomass
  • 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛; 渕端 学; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 6 124 - 125 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2011年 
    On the planning for Biomass Town, the first case of SVO utilization was proposed at last. There was very few scientific data for SVO utilization in Japan. We tried to propose several themes for fuel characterization of SVO, according to investigation of the waste oil collected in some town.
  • 星 靖; 木村 敬; 小田 昭浩; 水野 諭; 井田 民男
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 6 136 - 137 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2011年 
    Coal-coke is required a lot of performance in a melting furnace. Therefore, Coal-coke has 2OMPa of high mechanical compressive strength under room temperature, cold strength. The high mechanical cold compressive strength is very important factor for Bio-coke (named at Kinki University) as the substitution for Coal-coke. Especially, Bio-coke is required itself performance for mechanical compressive strength to keep air passage into the melting furnace as well as Coal-coke. This study proposes a simple nondestructive method for hardness evaluation with Bio-coke produced from apple juice residue, mainly non-utilization biomass on Aomori Pref. The mechanical properties have been measured by Brinell hardness and cold compression test to obtain the fundamental database with production conditions, initial moisture, process heat temperature, etc. In particular, the cold hardness of the Bio-coke is influenced by process heat temperature. This study suggests that Brinell hardness test can apply effective means as a simple and easy evaluation method of the Bio-coke in comparison with the cold compression test.
  • 森田 明宏; 井田 民男; 藤本 英人
    高温学会誌 37 2 71 - 76 High Temperature Society of Japan 2011年 
    Varieties of technological development for the people support continuing economic activity on the earth are demanded by the problem such as global warming. Expansion renewable energy use as one in this, the observation to biomass is renewable energy resource has risen every year. The suggestion of modeling to simulate the thermolytic behavior is necessary to advance more efficiently energy use by gasification etc. Although the establishment method has not existed yet. This study reports new modeling by statistical approach.
      The main features of the tried modeling are as follow. The dissipation ratio is the ratio of the loss weight by pyrolysis gasifying and the initial weight. The dissipation ratio of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are proportional to the dissipation of carbon. The dissipation of carbon follows the sigmoid function. The thermolytic behavior of biomass can be analyzed by dividing into cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin.
  • Hiroyuki Ito; Yuto Sakai; Tamio Ida; Yuji Nakamura; Osamu Fujita
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME/JSME 8TH THERMAL ENGINEERING JOINT CONFERENCE 2011, VOL 2 83 - 92 2011年 [査読有り]
     
    Bio-coke (BIC, highly densified biomass briquette), a newly developed biomass fuel as an alternative to coal coke which utilized in blast furnace, is employed in this study. This fuel is manufactured in highly compressed and moderate temperature conditions and has advantages in its versatility of biomass resources, high volumetric calorific value and high mechanical strength. Japanese knotweed is chosen as a biomass resource and is shaped into cylinder (48 mm in diameter and 85 mm in length). One of the most important characteristics of BIC is its high apparent density (1300 kg/m(3); twice or more than that of an ordinary wood pellet). In the present study, combustion characteristics of a single BIC fuel in high temperature air flow (473-873 K, 550-750 NL/min.) are investigated. Air is preheated and blown to the bottom surface of the BIC. Ignition and subsequent combustion behavior are observed with monitoring gas temperature near the BIC, surface and inside the BIC temperature, and time dependent mass loss of the BIC is measured. In the case with low air temperature, low heat flux from the fuel surface leads to the broad temperature distribution inside the BIC accompanied by the increase in ignition delay time and, then, once ignition takes place degradation rate becomes larger than the case with high temperature air. On the other hand, mass loss rate for the case of solid surface combustion in the high temperature air does not depend on the air temperature but does depend on the air flow rate, which is a result of reduced degradation rate relating to narrow temperature distribution in depth caused by short ignition delay time. Consequently, it is suggested that the history of preheating, i.e. the preheated condition which is determined by air temperature and air flow rate, is an essential factor to determine the ignition mode in the early stage of BIC combustion and the mass burning velocity in the period of main combustion with flame. It is found that the mass loss rate of BIC in the gas-phase combustion period increases with decrease in supplied air temperature in this study.
  • Manabu Fuchihata; Tamio Ida; Kazunori Kuwana; Satoru Mizuno
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME/JSME 8TH THERMAL ENGINEERING JOINT CONFERENCE 2011, VOL 3 163 - + 2011年 [査読有り]
     
    Flame structure of micro scale methane-air premixed flames is investigated experimentally. The flame is stabilized even on the burner whose diameter is 0.3mm when it is with pilot flame. However, shape of the flame formed on the burner whose diameter is less than 1mm is similar to micro diffusion flame. It is supposed that the flame formed on the burner whose diameter is submillimeter is dominated by the diffusion mixing of oxygen and methane from the premixture and heat and radicals from the pilot gas flow.
  • Hiroyuki Ito; Yuto Sakai; Tamio Ida; Yuji Nakamura; Osamu Fujita
    JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 6 1 111 - 122 2011年 [査読有り]
     
    The ignition behavior of a newly developed biomass briquette, Bio-coke (BIC), is investigated. The fuel has unique features such as economical advantages for its versatility of biomass resources, high volumetric calorific value because of its high density (1300 kg/m(3); twice or more than that of ordinary wood pellets) and high mechanical strength. The ignition characteristics of cylindrical BIC blocks (48 mm in diameter and 85 mm in length), important when using the fuel in actual combustion furnaces, are investigated in high temperature air flows (473-873 K, 550-750 NL/min.). In the experiments, preheated air is blown onto the bottom surface of BIC cylinders and the ignition behavior of the bottom surface is observed monitoring the surface temperature as well as the time dependent mass loss rates. The results show two ignition modes; (1) solid surface ignition preceding gas-phase ignition in high air temperature conditions (T >= 598K), and (2) gas-phase ignition accompanied by simultaneous surface ignition occurring at relatively low air temperature conditions. The appearance of each mode depends on the preheated air supply condition in terms of the air temperature, flow velocity, and moisture content of the fuel. The rate of evolution of volatile gases is closely correlated with the temperature distribution inside the BIC briquette which depends on the heating rate, implying that variations in the temperature distribution inside the fuel could be one reason for the appearance of the observed ignition modes. It is suggested that the temperature distribution inside the fuel has to be taken into account in the control of the ignition behavior of BIC briquettes.
  • 伊東弘行; 酒井雄人; 藤田修; 中村祐二; 井田民男
    高温学会誌 36 3 25 - 26 2010年05月 [査読有り]
  • 水野 諭; 井田 民男; 難波 邦彦
    高温学会誌 36 1 31 - 35 高温学会 2010年01月 
    Various conversion technologies of biomass have been created since the development of utilization technology of biomass was worked on in 2000. However, the innovation conversion technologies created by the development still have problems of high water content and low density, which are negative points on usage of biomass. From the viewpoint of density of biomass, we crushed molecular space of biomass without carbonization and semi-carbonization. In this study, we measured internal thermal conduction of high-density solid biomass, closing asymptotically to true specific gravity 1.4 of biomass and investigated the characteristics of internal thermal conduction. It is shown that the value of dT/dr which shows spatial thermal gradient constantly increases with time course and not by depending on conditions. Also, it is shown that the dT/dr takes the ultimate value 380K/m and gradually decreases after taking the ultimate value.
  • 本庄 孝子; 渕端 学; 井田 民男; 佐野 寛
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 19 144 - 145 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2010年 
    Many proposed Biomass Town Formation in 2009 are including BDF in them. But if considering the energetic sustainability, almost of the BDF process becomes hopeless because of the too much energy loss. To avoid the energy loss, SVO would be best recomended.
  • 本庄 孝子; 渕端 学; 井田 民男; 佐野 寛
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 5 58 - 59 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2010年 
    In using the west-oil, SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) is a direct use of oil for energy without esterification by methanol like FAME. The main problem of SVO is higher viscosity than that of FAME. The viscosity of SVO under the various conditions of heating and kerosene-dilution is studied, in order to decrease the viscosity. We found a linear relationship between kerosene-dilution and logarithmic viscosity(log η). On the contrary, the linearity is not so good between temperature and log η that the gradient of the curve becomes steeper in high viscosity region. But in narrow viscosity region, approximate linearities were found for all kinds of west oils practically.
  • 桑名 一徳; 井田 民男
    高温学会誌 36 5 214 - 221 High Temperature Society of Japan 2010年 
    This paper presents a theory to predict the extinction limit of jet diffusion microflames. The constant-density approximation is introduced to separate flow field from combustion reaction; flow field then depends only on the jet Reynolds number, Re. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation is adopted; the predicted flame shape based on the exact solution well agrees with experimental observation. An Arrhenius-type one-step global reaction is considered, adding the Damköhler number, Da, as an additional parameter to the Reynolds number. The extinction limit is obtained using an activation-energy asymptotics technique. The obtained extinction criterion, Da Re2 ≈ constant, reproduces experimental results that the jet exit velocity under the extinction condition is proportional to d-2, where d is the burner diameter.
  • 澤井 徹; 大政 光史; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 梶本武志; 難波邦彦
    高温学会誌 36 1 36 - 40 高温学会 2010年01月
  • 難波邦彦; 澤井 徹; 井田 民男
    高温学会誌 36 1 25 - 30 高温学会 2010年01月 
    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies with prevent global warming. This study is an attempt to burn pruned branches of plum trees in order to thermally recycle waste products of fruits agriculture. The devolatilization property of pruned branches of plum trees were observed by the thermogravimerty and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) to obtained fundamental data of fuel pyrolysis. The thermogravimetric analyzer was used to measure weight loss and temperature difference. It observed that the weight of pruned branches was decreased under three stages with endothermic reaction during water vaporazation and volatile pyrolysis, and with exothermic reaction during combustion of volatile and fixed carbon. The combustion behavior of pruned branches was observed in the electric furnace, where the video-recording and measurement of pruned branches weight were carried out at sequential steps of the combustion process. It observed that the combustion behavior of pruned branches was similar to woody pellets. The effects of furnace temperature and branch size were examined in order to elucidate the combustion characteristics as fuel, such as ignition delay, burning period, char-combustion time and the change of weight decrease. The results indicated that they are influenced at each step of the combustion processes such as devolatilization, ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion. Pruned branches showed medium values of characteristic time between of cider and woody pellet, and therefore ume plum pruned branches are considered to be promising alternative fuels.
  • Akihiro MORITA; 澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 難波邦彦
    Journal of JSEM 9 36 - 41 日本実験力学会 2009年09月
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男; FUTIHATA M.
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 4 4 - 5 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2009年 
    Nowadays folky mountain village has a very poor self-sustainability in food. This area has a big potential of stock-farm production. But almost of Japanese forest has too steep slope, to put cattle for grazing. Horstein, the best milk-maker, is hopeless for pasturage at steep maountain. Only goat, chicken and wild-pig can survie there, but goat.is poor provider in milk-production. Brown-swiss, semi-prototype cattle, is one of the candidate for livestock, considering both mountain adaptability and milk-production.
  • 川見 佳正; 桑名 一徳; 井田 民男; 水野 諭; 森田 明宏
    高温学会誌 35 2 97 - 101 High Temperature Society of Japan 2009年 
    Bio-cokes, developed by Kinki University (domestic patent No. 4089933), can utilize unused biomass and be used as a coalcoke substitute in large-scale industrial processes such as foundry cupola furnaces. Bio-cokes are expected to serve as a technology corresponding to (1) reduction in the amount of the CO2 generation for the global warming prevention; and (2) rise of the price of coal coke.
    In preliminary tests conducted at Kinki University, it was confirmed that Bio-cokes could be manufactured from various raw materials such as used tea leaves, wood waste, etc. This paper reports our current effort to optimize manufacturing conditions of a mass-production facility of Bio-cokes.
    This study confirms the pressured solidification characteristics of biomass (using tea scum as the raw material) with varied parameters such as heat process temperature, smashed size, pressure, and initial water content. Thermal analysis of the material explains why the manufacturing process does not change material weight when setting the heat process temperature at 180°C . The optimum pressure for effectively obtaining a high specific gravity is constantly around 20MPa in spite of different smashed material sizes. There is the optimum initial water content to achieve the highest specific gravity, which is very close to the value based on the true-densiy.
  • 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男
    高温学会誌 35 2 76 - 80 High Temperature Society of Japan 2009年 
    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.
  • 石井 一義; 村田 博敏; 桑名 一徳; 水野 諭; 森田 明宏; 井田 民男
    高温学会誌 35 2 91 - 96 High Temperature Society of Japan 2009年 
    Global environment problems have become more and more serious in recent years, and reduction of greenhouse gas emission based on Kyoto Protocol adopted at the 3rd conference of the parties of the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3); securement of primary energy source and development of clean and renewable energy sources have been pressingly needed in consideration of the predicted depletion of fossil fuel in the future.
    In this study, we explore the use of a solidified biomass-derived fuel, having the maximum compressive strength of 100MPa and calorific value of 21MJ/kg, in iron-casting or iron-making processes as an alternative fuel to be mixed with coal coke. This study, carried out for internal observation using a quick-freeze technique, observed an actual working cupola furnace under the 20% alternative coal coke operation condition. After quick freeze of the cupola furnace, the solidified biomass fuel was found to inhabit near the iron-melting zone. Especially, this solidified biomass fuel smoothly changes carbonized fuel through high-density state during the operating process. On the other hand, this study tried to simulate gasification combustion under a high temperature environment instead of actual internal combustion of solidified biomass fuel. These combustion mechanisms were confirmed to be similar to diffusion-flame phenomena in general.
  • Kazunori Kuwana; Nami Tagami; Satoru Mizuno; Tamio Ida
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE 32 3115 - 3121 2009年 [査読有り]
     
    This paper presents a theory to predict the extinction limit of laminar jet diffusion microflames. defined as flames established on submillimeter-diameter burners. The classical Burke-Schumann (BS) theory is first extended to include the effect of one-step, finite-rate chemistry. Then, a theory of diffusion-flame extinction is applied using activation-energy asymptotics to predict the extinction limit. The present theory correctly reproduces experimental observations, i.e., u(L) similar to d(-2) where u(L) is the fuel jet velocity at the extinction limit (lower limit) and d the burner diameter. According to the BS theory, the gradient of mixture fraction at the flame-sheet location is infinite at the burner rim, and it decreases with increasing axial distance to the minimal value at the flame tip. Therefore, local extinction initiates at the burner rim, and extinction occurs when the mixture-fraction gradient at the flame tip is greater than a critical Value. This view of microflame extinction is supported by the results of experiments and numerical simulations. It is found that the present theory can be applied for various types of fuels, those are, methane, propane, and butane. (C) 2009 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Toru Sawai; Akihiro Morita; Tamio Ida; Manabu Fuchihata; Takeshi Kajimoto; Masuo Kaji
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER ENGINEERING 2009 (ICOPE-09), VOL 1 1 219 - + 2009年 
    To reduce the exhaustion of carbon dioxide in power plants, the operating technology for co-firing of woody biomass and coal at existing coal-fueled power plants has come to attract attention. The pretreatment of semi-carbonization and comminution before transportation can be effective in reducing the energy consumption due to transportation of biomass. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of semi-carbonization on comminution energy and assessment of transport property of woody biomass. The results obtained are as follows. Empirical correlations of work index in Bond's Law are presented for both woody and semi-carbonization regions. The comminution energy can be estimated by the present empirical correlations within an accuracy of +/- 30 percent. From the result of analysis of energy consumptions, it is found that the total energy loss due to pyrolysis, transportation and comminution is the minimum at a mass yield condition of 0.6 for the same transport distance.
  • Comminution and Combustion Properties of Mixture of Semi-Carbonized Woody Biomass and Coal
    澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 難波邦彦
    Proceedings of ISEM-08 1 - 6 2008年12月
  • 水野 諭; 森田 明宏; 井田 民男; 難波 邦彦; 渕端 学; 澤井 徹
    高温学会誌 34 4 153 - 159 High Temperature Society of Japan 2008年07月 
    Effective utilization of biomass resource rapidly has been promoting since the government adopted the 'Biomass Nippon' strategy at a cabinet meeting in 2002. Especially, the energy conversion technology of applying biomass has been expected from a point of view of environment and resource conservation. However, the energy conversion technologies are developed only for woody and herby biomass, and not for all of biomass. A stable supply of large quantity of biomass will be pressed in the future because the conversion technology must expand to use a variety of biomass. This study is to consider ways by various quantitative correlation analyses between the atomic composition and thermal decomposition of various biomass samples. The results found that thermal decomposition analyses of various biomass resources have correlations between atomic composition properties and exothermic properties.
  • 澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 加治 増夫; 梶本武志
    高温学会誌 34 4 171 - 177 高温学会 2008年07月 
    In order to promote the utilization of unused woody biomass such as forestry biomass and pruned branch of fruit, the utilization of woody biomass has come to attract attention as a fuel at the pulverized-coal fired power plant. When the woody biomass in the forestry region is utilized, it is necessary to examine and reduce the energy consumption for collecting of resources, preprocessing such as comminuting and drying and transportation . In the present study, effect of semi-carbonization pyrolysis on comminution energy and assessment of transport property of woody biomass is investigated. The results obtained are as follows. Empirical correlations of work index in Bond′s Law are presented for both woody and semi-carbonization regions. The comminution energy can be estimated by the present empirical correlations within an accuracy of ±30 percent. To evaluate the effect of semi-carbonization process on the energy reduction of transport and comminution, an analysis of energy consumptions is conducted. From the result of analysis, it is found that the energy consumption ratio is the minimum at a mass yield condition of 0.6 for the same transport distance.
  • 澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 加治 増夫; 梶本武志; 赤阪素史
    日本機械学会論文集、B編 74 741 1032 - 1039 日本機械学会 2008年05月 
    [Abstract] The unused biomass such as residues left on forest floor and unused portions of farm crops is considered as an important domestic and renewable energy resource. The present study addresses the forestry biomass derived from logging and thinning operations in forests. Since most of the forests in Japan locate in the mountain region, the forestry biomass has not been used continually due to the difficulty in carrying residues out of the forest. In order to promote the utilization of forestry biomass, the efficiencies for the transportation across steep slopes have to be improved. In the present study, the new method to transport wood chips by means of liquid film flow in sloped pipeline is proposed. The transportation limit of wood chips is investigated by using the test section imitating the sloped rough terrain pipeline. The wood chips are stagnated in the downstream region of hydraulic jump, which causes blockage of wood chips in the tube. To predict the flow rate of transportation limit of wood chips at a given liquid flow rate, analytical model is presented. From the comparison with the experimental results, it is found that the transportation limit in the sloped pipeline with horizontal tube can be predicted by the present analytical model.Copyright (c) 2008, 一般社団法人日本機械学会, rights: 本文データは学協会の許諾に基づきCiNiiから複製したものである, relation: isVersionOf: http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006685213/
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男; 淵端 学
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 17 186 - 187 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2008年
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男; 淵端 学
    バイオマス科学会議発表論文集 3 4 - 5 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2008年 
    BDF (FAME) systems of today have many problems such as competition with food-demand, limit of fat & oil-resources, liquid waste from the factory, etc. Many alternative BDF-fuels have been proposed, but insufficient to solve the problems. We had better return to SVO, with more efforts of improvements of Diesel engine system in order to apply the SVO.
  • Manabu Fuchihata; Masashi Katsuki; Yukio Mizutani; Tamio Ida
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE 31 1353 - 1359 2007年 [査読有り]
     
    We discussed the flame structure categorized in distributed reaction zone and well-stirred reactor on Borghi's phase diagram. Recently, it is thought that the flame structure formed in high intensity and small scale turbulence is of thin reaction zone structure. The theory, however, is according to the hypothesis that a laminar flamelet propagates into a high intensity turbulent flow, whose Damkohler number is low. We supposed that the distributed reaction zone is formed when reaction initiates in a low Damkohler number field. In the present study, low Damkohler number conditions were Successfully formed in relatively weak turbulence fields, even around a burner rim, by using very lean premixture, which gave a sufficiently long chemical characteristic time. Laser tomography, chemiluminescence detectors, LDV and thermocouple were used simultaneously for observing lean turbulent premixed flames with silica powder seeded. As a result, the transition of flame structure from a distributed reaction zone to a wrinkled laminar flame was observed in detail by traversing the observation point from near-nozzle region to downstream region. Further, the flame structures, in which a distributed reaction structure coexists with a propagating flame structure, were observed in the near-nozzle region. It was concluded that distributed reaction zone structure is formed when reaction start at a low Damkohler number field, while thin reaction zone is formed when a laminar flame propagates into a low Damkohler number field. (C) 2006 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男
    年次大会講演論文集 2007 361 - 362 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2007年 
    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to bum biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industry. The pyrolytic properties of tea and shochu residues were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG). Residues were compressed at high temperature by hot press device for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of Bio-fuels was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, flame and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, burning period and char combustion time.
  • 井田 民男; 難波 邦彦; 佐野 寛
    高温学会誌 33 1 43 - 47 High Temperature Society of Japan 2007年 
    Based on un-use biomass utilities, Carbonized technology is noticed as material utilities and solid fuel. Therefore, this technology is tackling by national project as large-scale utilities. But, this technology is dehydrated volatiles matter during carbonized from biomass. Especially, Woody tar into one of volatile matter has vicious handling to get into trouble in carbonized equipment. In this study, we propose to get fundamental knowledge for effective thermal utility through thermal decompositions and fundamental combustion properties on experimental results. Woody tar has high caloric value (approximately 30MJ/kg) and high carbon ration. On the other hand, a woody vinegar liquid has thermal decomposition property close to water property with heat absorption as evaporation latent heat of water. In fundamental combustion experimental result, a woody tar has fl ammable combustion and surface combustion. Especially, a total combustion and ignition time properties has hyperbola relation to environment temperatures in furnace.
  • 井田 民男; 森田 明宏; 難波 邦彦; 藤本 英人; 佐野 寛
    高温学会誌 33 1 27 - 30 High Temperature Society of Japan 2007年 
    Biomass utilities for high water content have very important signifi cance close future in Japan. Especially, London treaty for ocean disposal of wastes in 2007-6 has big problems to keep of sustainability provisions supply for our lives. We could calculate to exist total caloric thermal energy 124TJ⁄y (340GJ⁄dZ) in Pig wastes as domestic biomass energy. This study is doing fundamental experimental by thermal decomposition and combustion for Pig wastes. Thermal decomposition analysis investigates for gasifi cation and fi xed carbon combustion characteristics. Fundamental combustion experiment shows time dependent combustion process, ignition process, fl ame process and char combustion process.
  • Manabu Fuchihata; Shuko Takeda; Tamio Ida
    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME/JSME THERMAL ENGINEERING SUMMER HEAT TRANSFER CONFERENCE 2007, VOL 1 601 - 604 2007年 [査読有り]
     
    Microexplosions of light oil-water emulsified fuel droplets were successfully documented using a high-speed video camera with laser illumination. The local frequency of the explosion occurrence, temperature profile and exhaust gas emissions were measured in spray flames of water-in-oil type emulsion formed using an air-assist atomizer with a ring pilot burner. Those results indicate that the flame structure changes as the water droplet diameter in the emulsion fuel was varied, even if the fuel components and their fractions were same. When the fuel includes the water droplet, whose median diameter was about 75 mu m, HC and CO emission were reduced as compared to those for the fuel of smaller water droplet content. It is probable that if the water droplet diameter is uniform, avalanching microexplosions occur at certain local region in the flame, and the water content vaporizes almost at once and extinguishes the flame. It leads to HC and CO emission increase. When the water droplet diameters are large, atomizer atomizes those; therefore, emulsion droplets include various size of water droplet in the flame. Consequently, the avalanching microexplosion occurrence is avoided, and HC and CO emissions are reduced.
  • 澤井 徹; 加治 増夫; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 梶本武志; 本庄孝子; 佐野 寛; 赤阪素史
    高温学会誌 33 1 31 - 37 高温学会 2007年01月
  • 澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 左近孝憲; 梶本武志; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛; 難波邦彦
    環境技術学会 35 12 916 - 923 2006年12月
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男
    日本エネルギー学会誌 85 1 42 - 48 The Japan Institute of Energy 2006年 
    A folky mountain system ("Satoyama" in Japanese) has a peculiar feature in the view of energy system. In Japan, many of the forests exist in such steep mountains, that the large expense is needed for the collec-tion and transportation of the felled or thinned woods. On the contrary in folky mountains, we can expect to avoid the big energy loss at the process of transportation because of the short distance to the consumers. However, the folky mountain system nowadays is declining because of an aging of the laborers and subsid-ence of demand of fuelwood. Accordingly, the restoration of classical folky mountain system is quite diffi-cult without new system-tool. We proposed here several new measurements to solve the Problems: (1) rental forest, (2) household forest, (3) mountain-forestal pasture, (4) thinned wood direct use.
  • 井田 民男; 中西 亜貴夫
    Marine engineering : journal of the Japan Institution of Marine Engineering = マリンエンジニアリング : 日本マリンエンジニアリング学会誌 40 6 777 - 780 The Japan Institute of Marine Engineering 2005年11月
  • 傾斜度を考慮した推定法による紀伊半島における木質バイオマス資源調査
    澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学
    エネルギー・資源学会誌 26 4 289 - 293 2005年07月
  • 和歌山県における傾斜度を考慮した木質バイオマスの可採資源量の推定
    井田 民男; 澤井 徹; 渕端 学; 佐野 寛; 森田 明宏
    エネルギー・資源 26 4 289 - 293 エネルギー・資源学会 2005年07月 
    本研究では、バイオマスの国内資源量を推定するのに、傾斜林までも考慮した可採資源量の推定方法を見出し、議論を行った。
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 河原 宣子; 久保 智
    工学教育協会 53 2 54 - 58 社団法人 日本工学教育協会 2005年03月 
    本研究では、生活支援支援自助具の製作と通じて、工学を学習する意義と実社会での工学の役割を体験する教育の考察を行い報告した。
  • 渕端 学; 井田 民男
    高温学会誌 31 1 32 - 37 High Temperature Society of Japan 2005年01月 
    We discussed the flame structure of premixed flames in high intensity turbulent fields, where Damköhler numbers were around or lower than unity. In the former study, low Damköhler number flames were successfully formed in relatively weak turbulent reactant flows by using very lean premixture of sufficiently long chemical characteristic time, where the transition of flame structure from 'Distributed reaction zone' to 'Wrinkled laminar flame' was observed. We, in the present study, discussed microstructures of turbulent premixed flames in high intensity turbulent fields of low Damköhler number. As a result, we have suggested two types of microstructures of intense turbulent premixed flames. One is a propagating flame with local extinct protrusions resulting in cylindrical or warped flamelets surrounded by a pseudo-distributed reaction zone, and the other is a propagating flame with local extinction spots resulting in a pseudo-distributed reaction zone. The proposed models are consistent with experimental observations, and the classifications of the two types of flame structures are understood to correspond the boundary separating 'Distributed reaction zone' and 'Well-stirred reactor' on Borghi's diagram.
  • 石村 健志; 井田 民男; 渕端 学
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 14 146 - 147 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2005年
  • 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛; 井田 民男; 澤井 徹
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 14 130 - 131 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2005年
  • 佐野 寛; 森田 明宏; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男; 澤井 徹
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 14 156 - 157 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2005年
  • 加子坂 篤志; 井田 民男; 渕端 学
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 14 142 - 143 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2005年
  • 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 佐野 寛
    年次大会講演論文集 2005 263 - 264 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2005年 
    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies with prevent global warming. This study is an attempt to burn pelletized woody biomass (Bio-pellet) made from sawdust and logging residue in order to thermally recycle waste products of forestry and lumbering industry. Fundamental data on Bio-pellet combustion were obtained in an electric furnace. Combustion appearance, weight and temperature of pellets were investigated under specified furnace temperatures and sizes to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, burning period, char-combustion time and the change of weight decrease and temperature rise.
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 武田 修子
    高温学会誌 31 1 57 - 62 高温学会 2005年01月 
    本論では、液体燃料に水を添加するため、比重差による上下分離、界面における化学的な油・水反発により生じる排液現象を抑制する乳化剤およびその添加量が与える影響について噴霧火炎の幾何学的変化や温度分析変化などから検討し、ミクロ爆発の噴霧火炎への効果を論じている。
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛
    日本エネルギー学会誌 84 2 142 - 148 日本エネルギー学会 2005年 
    本研究では、半炭化技術を提案し、バイオマス新燃料の開発を行い最適なエネルギー収率についての検討を行った。
  • 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛; 井田 民男
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 13 206 - 207 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2004年
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 武田 修子
    年次大会講演論文集 2004 9 - 10 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2004年 
    Harvesting, transportation, energy conversion and the high-efficient utilization, cascade method and marke formation besides become with the indispensable element in order to utilize the biomass resource. This stud was obtained combustion stability of methane fermentation biogas (0.6CH_4+0.4CO_2) from the livestock excrement resources. The microflame of biogas fuels were formed by the diffusion flame on the coppered straight pipes of inner diameter 0.02mm〜1.5mm. It was suggested that minimum mixing spatial scale changed by the each mixing ratio of the bio-fuel gas.
  • 渕端 学; 武田 修子; 井田 民男
    年次大会講演論文集 2004 11 - 12 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2004年 
    Light oil based oil-in-water emulsion fuels are applied to a direct-injection diesel engine. Fuel consumption and the emission of NOX, HC, CO are measured along with the variation of dispersed waterdrop diameter. As a result, fuel consumption rate decreases as the waterdrop diameter increases. NO_x emissions of the emulsion fuels are lower than of light oil, and are lowered as the waterdrop diameter decreases. HC emission for the emulsion fuel of the largest waterdrop diameter is lower than those for smaller waterdrop diameter emulsions. From the result of the observation of open spray flames, it is considered that those tendencies are the effect of the acceleration of the flame speed caused by microexplosions.
  • 澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 加治 増夫; 梶本武志; 本庄孝子; 佐野 寛
    日本エネルギー学会誌 83 10 782 - 787 日本エネルギー学会 2004年 
    木質バイオマスの主成分であるセルロースの半炭化実験を行い,半炭化の最適条件および酸添加による燃料の輸送性に及ぼす効果を検討した。微量の酸添加は半炭化領域において有効であり,同一熱分解温度に対するセルロース由来の残炭成分の収率を減少させる効果(重量収率低減効果),および同一の重量収率に対する熱分解温度を低減させる効果(熱分解温度低減効果)を有する。半炭化燃料の輸送性解析モデルを提案し,無次元輸送距離Sに対する最適重量収率条件が存在することを明らかにする共に,両者の関係式を示した。
  • 井田 民男; 淵端 学; 佐野 寛; 難波 邦彦
    日本エネルギー学会誌 83 10 788 - 793 日本エネルギー学会 2004年 
    本研究では、木質バイオペレットの基礎となる熱分解特性と落下式炉による燃焼実験を行い、その燃焼挙動について議論した。
  • Effect of Acid Additives on “Semi-Carbonization” Pyrolysis of Woody Biomass
    澤井 徹; 加治 増夫; 赤阪素史; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 梶本武志; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Power Engineering : ICOPE 2003(3) 3-73 - 3-78 2003年11月 
    木質バイオマスの主成分であるセルロースを対象に半炭化実験を行なった。クエン酸の添加により低い温度域でエネルギー密度の改質が可能であることを示した。(英文)
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 難波 邦彦; 佐野 寛
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 12 238 - 239 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2003年
  • 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛; 井田 民男; 渕端 学
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 12 230 - 231 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2003年
  • 難波 邦彦; 渕端 学; 井田 民男; 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛
    年次大会講演論文集 2003 165 - 166 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2003年 
    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass has attracted considerable attention as new energy without global warming. This study is an attempt to thermally recycle woody biomass fuel made from waste products of forestry and lumbering industry. Pyrolysis and combustion behavior of woody biomass are affected considerably by kinds of material and treatment on making as fuel. The pyrolytic characteristics of woody biomass samples were investigated by the thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) to obtain fundamental data of biomass utilization. The results indicated that the weight of all samples decreased during two stages with endothermic reaction during pyrolysis and combustion process.
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 難波 邦彦; 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛
    年次大会講演論文集 2003 167 - 168 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2003年 
    The 21st century begins, and bioenergy is suddenly establishing position as sustainable energy. However, It harms value as energy in order to position value as fuel as economic policy with the present quick effect nature or a local area active big project under the present conditions. In this study, we notice to a difference of a market scale of the biomass fuel under cascade ranking and, by this study, examine the effectiveness. Density of Kenaf is about 20kg/m^3 in a dry state, and 20-30 times are low in comparison with quality of woody biomass. A raw herby biomass included free water of approximately 85%. When it transported herby biomass, it was shown that the densification that this study included a dry process in was an important technology problem.
  • Combustion speed comparison of semi-charcoal pellet with simple bio-pellet
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛
    2002年09月 
    本研究では、木質バイオペレットの基礎となる熱分解特性と落下式炉による燃焼実験を行い、その燃焼挙動について議論した。
  • 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男; 淵端 学
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 80 202 - 203 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2002年
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 澤井 徹; 佐野 寛
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 80 208 - 209 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2002年
  • 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 中田 悠詞
    日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 80 164 - 165 一般社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2002年
  • 渕端 学; 本庄 孝子; 井田 民男; 佐野 寛
    熱工学講演会講演論文集 2002 167 - 168 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2002年 
    Woody biomass is a hopeful energy resource to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Little amount of woody biomass is utilized for energy production, although Japan has much forest, and has large emission of greenhouse gas. Because most forests in Japan are located in steep mountain ranges far from urban area. Therefore, we must reduce the labor and the costs for ingathering and transportation of the woody biomass energy to utilize it in Japan. The object of our study is to improve the calorific density of woody biomass pellets, and reduce the transportation cost per unit energy. We adopted the semi-carbonizing method to achieve it. This study examined the optimum semi-carbonizing condition for pelletizing.
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 本庄 孝子; 佐野 寛
    熱工学講演会講演論文集 2002 171 - 172 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2002年 
    We suggest possibility of two independence city from comparison of large quantities energy consumption in a big city from the situation of a local city about effective practical use of quality of woody bioenergy by this study. In particular it is necessary to do the recycle energy system that may make use of the thing that is different in the area where a consuming place and quality of woody biomass of electric energy in the local country concentrate on in one of the problem that quality of woody bioenergy surrounds as a good point.
  • 難波 邦彦; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 佐野 寛; 本庄 孝子
    熱工学講演会講演論文集 2002 169 - 170 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2002年 
    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies with prevent global warming. This study is an attempt to burn pelletized woody biomass (Bio-pellet) made from sawdust and logging residue in order to thermally recycle waste products of forestry and lumbering industry. Fundamental data on Bio-pellet combustion were obtained in an electric furnace. Combustion appearance, weight and temperature of pellets were investigated under specified furnace temperatures to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, burning period, char-combustion time and the change of weight decrease and temperature rise.
  • 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 水谷 幸夫
    年次大会講演論文集 1 257 - 258 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2001年 
    Microscopic diffusion flame mechanism is important when understand mutual connection of a combustion condition and a condition in molecule diffusion of a flow that a molecule to maintain routine diffusion combustion has quantitatively. Micro-jet diffusion flames, formed by a minute burner of a few hundreds of a few tens μm inner diameter, should be interesting and useful, partly because they resemble micro-gravity flames and partly because they provide some insight into the mixing and chemical kinetics process occurring in turbulent diffusion flames. This flexible double micro burner can begin to make non-symmetric combustion region by free movement of inner burner in the outer flame region. This study observed the time-dependent combustion state by direct photography method with color CCD camera.
  • Time-dependent mezzo scale lagrangian process in turbulent diffusion flames observed using an ultrahigh speed video system
    井田 民男
    2000年10月 
    本研究では、超高速ビデオシステムにより乱流拡散火炎の階層的な構造を可視化し、その階層毎の特徴的な火炎構造を定量的に評価できる方法について提案、研究した。
  • 井田 民男
    年次大会講演論文集 2000 777 - 778 一般社団法人日本機械学会 2000年 
    To elucidate the nature of the mixing process in the structure of turbulent diffusion flames, it is extremely important to understand the change of the time-dependent stepwise components of the macroscopic and microscopic spatial structure of the flame. The experimental object was to store fundamental data of flame characteristics and to extract problem points as micro-flame tool by double micro flames. This study was visualized at CH image by direct photography and OH image by laser shadowgraphs. Especially, it was found that the buoyancy length from the end of the burner and the flame area thickness, which depend on the molecular diffusion rate of the fuel, were constant regardless of the initial burner port conditions.
  • Macroscopic Turbulent Diffusion Flame Structures Observed using an Ultrahigh Speed Video System
    井田 民男; 大竹 一友
    1998年10月 
    本研究では、超高速ビデオシステムにより乱流拡散火炎の階層的な構造を可視化し、その階層毎の特徴的な火炎構造を定量的に評価できる方法について提案、研究した。
  • Time-dependent lagragian process in turbulent diffusion flames observed using an ultrahigh speed video system
    井田 民男; 大竹 一友
    318 - 321 1997年05月 
    本研究では、超高速ビデオシステムにより乱流拡散火炎の階層的な構造を可視化し、その階層毎の特徴的な火炎構造を定量的に評価できる方法について提案、研究した。
  • 井田 民男; 大竹 一友
    日本機械学会論文集 B編 61 589 3329 - 3337 The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 1995年 
    Space- and time-resolved information, as well as macro- and microscopic visualizations, is essential for detailed study of mixing, reaction and heat transfer mechanisms in a turbulent diffusion flame. However, turbulent diffusion flame structures have been studied almost solely by time-resolved single-point measurement due to the restriction of diagnostics. The time-dependent spatial structures of turbulent diffusion flames have often been masked by the statistical analyses. In this study, time-dependent spatial mixing processes in turbulent diffusion flame are visualized by instantaneous flame luminosity and plane Mie scattering images by an ultrahigh-speed video system (Fastcam). It is found that the autosimilarity of the instantaneous turbulent diffusion flame structure has a fractal dimension defined by fractal analysis which appears corresponding to the fractal analysis of the combustion region. Macroscopic movements of the flame region are classified in terms of the instantaneous variations of flame shape.
  • 井田 民男; 大竹 一友
    日本機械学会論文集 B編 58 550 1918 - 1924 The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 1992年 
    Microscopic structure of turbulent diffusion flames is studied by a time-resolved planar video picture system obtained by a laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS) method and a single-point LRS measurement. The microscopic temperature is measured by using a two-dimensional LRS signal and image processing. Coaxial turbulent diffusion flames at moderate Reynolds numbers, which exhibit typical diffusion flame structures, are formed on laboratory-scale burners. It is found that the flame can be divided into four typical regions characterized by the distribution of macroscale of temperature fluctuations. These four regions are visualized by the two-dimensional LRS pictures. The turbulent heat transfer mechanisms in these four regions are discussed in terms of the two-dimensional LRS and the power spectral density of temperature fluctuations, in terms of one-point LRS. A cluster of temperature inhomogeneity is observed by cluster analysis in Regions I and III. It is found that different structures of microscopic inhomogeneity in the mixing region of Taylor's dissipation length scale appear, corresponding to the characteristics of mixing and combustion mechanisms in each region.
  • 井田 民男; 大竹 一友
    日本機械学会論文集 B編 56 531 3514 - 3521 The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 1990年 
    This study discusses in detail turbulent diffusion flame structures and their similarities by using laboratory-scale turbulent diffusion flames. The characteristics of these flames vary with working conditions, burner sizes, type of fuel, oxidant, etc.. The time scale and PDF of temperature fluctuations were obtained by laser Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (LRS) which had no direct interference with the combustion field during measurement. A He-Ne laser LDV system was also adopted to measure the velocity fluctuations. The turbulent diffusion flame structure could be classified into four regions by the time scale characteristics of temperature fluctuations. From the results of cross correlations between velocity and temperature fluctuations, it uas ascertained that the turbulent energy flux was not simply proportional to the gradient of the time mean temperature profile in the combustion region where the time scale of temperature fluctuation attained almost the maximum value

書籍

  • 熱エネルギー・環境保全の工学
    コロナ社 2002年
  • Engineering of Thermal Energy and Environment Conservation
    2002年

講演・口頭発表等

  • バイオコークスを用いた銑鉄レス鋳造における溶解時間の短縮  [通常講演]
    冨田 義弘; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 水野 諭
    日本鋳造工学会 第162回全国講演大会 2013年05月 日本鋳造工学会 甲府市 日本鋳造工学会 第162回全国講演大会
     
    鋳造にバイオコークスを用いることで加炭作用があることがわかっている。そこで、銑鉄を利用せずに鋼屑に加炭させることで鋳鉄の製造を試みた。
  • 竹とスギ炭化物を混合したバイオコークスの圧縮強度特性  [通常講演]
    澤井 徹; 大政 光史; 井田 民男
    日本機械学会関西支部 2011年03月 京都 日本機械学会関西支部
  • 炭化物混合の竹バイオコークスの成形特性  [通常講演]
    澤井 徹; 井田 民男
    日本設計工学会関西支部講演会 2010年11月 寝屋川 日本設計工学会関西支部講演会
  • 竹を用いたバイオコークスの成形性に関する研究  [通常講演]
    澤井 徹; 井田 民男
    環境技術学会研究発表大会 2010年09月 京都 環境技術学会研究発表大会
  • キュポラ操業を想定した大型バイオコークスの製造開発  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 菅野 真由
    社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2006年12月 京都大学桂キャンパス 社団法人日本エネルギー学会
     
    本研究では、100ton/h規模の大型キュポラ操業での20%石炭コークス代替操業においてバイオマスのコークス化を実現するために大型バイオコークス化の製造装置の開発とその燃料性能についての検討を行った。
  • バイオコークスの構成成分による特性の変化  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 辻 英史
    社団法人日本エネルギー学会 2006年12月 京都大学桂キャンパス 社団法人日本エネルギー学会
     
    本研究では、鉄鋼分野での溶解過程に必要不可欠な石炭コークスの代替となる、環境負担の少ない燃料を創出し、その可能性を広げることを目的とする。特に、本研究で開発されたバイオコークスは、現状では20%代替(追い込みコークス)が可能であることを実証しているので、ベットコークス代替として利用できるほどの充分な硬度を持たせることに主眼を置いた。
  • 紀伊半島の木質系バイオマス資源とその搬出量の推定法  [通常講演]
    澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛
    第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表講演会(東京) 2003年06月 第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表講演会(東京)
     
    傾斜山岳林の森林資源の利用可能量は、傾斜度により大きく変動する。数値地図による紀伊半島の傾斜確率密度関数に基づく資源量評価を行なった。
  • 新燃料BCDF:セルロース、檜のオガクズ及びカイズカイブキの半炭化圧密化  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 澤井 徹; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛
    第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会(大阪) 2003年06月 第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会(大阪)
     
    本研究では、BCDF燃料でもセルロース、ヒノキのオガクズとカイズカイブキの葉と枝のBCDF化を試み、BCDF化によるCHN成分の変化等を得たので報告した。
  • バイオマス用途のカスケード序列の再検討  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 澤井 徹; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛
    第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会(大阪) 2003年06月 第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会(大阪)
     
    本研究では、燃料として利用できるバイオ資源を、堆肥化すればリサイクルの模範であるかのごとくいう事例があり、エネルギー資源浪費を勧める結果となっている。この矛盾を打破するには、資源のエネルギー・経済価値のカスケード的利用の視点を確立する必要があることを再検討した。
  • 紀伊半島の木質バイオマス資源とその搬出量の推定法  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 澤井 徹; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛
    第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会(大阪) 2003年06月 第22回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会(大阪)
     
    本研究では、潜在資源論から搬出可能な資源論に議論をさらに絞込み、究極搬出量の推定を可採可能条件の要因から推定し、その増量につながる技術開発の方向性などを検討した。
  • 森林バイオマスによる中山間地域のエネルギー自給可能性  [通常講演]
    澤井 徹; 井田 民男; 渕端 学; 本庄孝子; 佐野寛
    日本エネルギー学会関西支部第47回研究発表会(京都) 2002年12月 日本エネルギー学会関西支部第47回研究発表会(京都)
     
    国産森林バイオマスによる中山間地域での民生用熱エネルギ自給の可能性を示すと共に、人工林活用方法の提言として針葉樹生産林の広葉樹への転換が有効であることを明らかにした。
  • 地方エネルギー自立都市の可能性と波及効果  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 渕端 学; 澤井 徹; 佐野寛
    第 21 回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会 (大阪) 2002年06月 第 21 回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会 (大阪)
     
    本研究では、 木質系バイオマスによるエネルギー的に自立するためのシステムを構築することを目的とする。 木質系バイオマスは、 森林発電により電気と熱エネルギーに変換され、 自給あるいは商業ベースでの活用による波及効果を検討する。
  • 中山間地域におけるローカルバイオマスの熱利用  [通常講演]
    井田 民男; 澤井 徹
    第 21 回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会 (大阪) 2002年06月 第 21 回エネルギー・資源学会研究発表会 (大阪)
     
    本研究では、 中山間地域の実状に応じたエネルギー供給システムを提案・評価する最初の試みとして、 和歌山県を中心に残渣・廃棄物系バイオマスによるエネルギー自給の可能性ならび熱供給の方法について検討を行った。

MISC

受賞

  • 2017年10月 日本実験力学会 技術賞
     
    受賞者: 井田 民男
  • 2017年10月 日本機械学会 環境工学部門 環境工学シンポジウム功労賞
     
    受賞者: 井田 民男
  • 2015年10月 日本鋳造工学会 研究奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 井田 民男
  • 2015年06月 日本鋳造工学会 豊田賞
     
    受賞者: 井田 民男
  • 2012年12月 環境省 地球温暖化防止活動環境大臣賞
     
    受賞者: 井田 民男
  • 2011年10月 新エネ大賞 資源エネルギー庁長官賞
     
    受賞者: 井田 民男

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • バイオエネルギーの基礎研究
    新エネルギー技術研究開発費
    研究期間 : 2001年 -2027年
  • マイクロ燃焼工学
    基礎科学研究
    研究期間 : 1993年 -2027年
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 2022年04月 -2025年03月 
    代表者 : 川村 淳浩; 井田 民男
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 2017年04月 -2020年03月 
    代表者 : 川村 淳浩; 井田 民男
     
    先行研究で、木質ペレットと同サイズの小径バイオコークスを木質ペレット焚き家庭用ストーブで混焼させることで、クリンカー形成が抑制される可能性が示された。 本研究では、混焼率を上昇させることで、このクリンカー形成機構を深く追求するために、小径バイオコークスの生産性を高める方策を見いだし、混焼率を更に高めた燃焼比較実験をおこなった結果、以下の知見が得られた。 (1)半自動化した2組のバッチ式小径バイオコークス製造システムを連携させることで、基本システムよりも2.6~3.3倍の生産性向上が果たせることを見出した。(2)混焼率を10%程度に高めることで、クリンカー形成抑制に効果があることが示唆された。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 2014年04月 -2017年03月 
    代表者 : 川村 淳浩; 井田 民男
     
    灰分の少ない高品質のバイオマス原料確保が物理的にも経済的にも困難となっている。これが、バイオマスの普及を妨げる阻害要因のひとつとなっている。 本研究では、木質ペレットと同サイズのバイオコークスを製造して家庭用木質ペレットストーブに適用して、燃焼状況によるクリンカー形成の違いを探り、以下の知見が得られた。 (1) 木質ペレットでは、安定した燃焼を妨げる恐れのあるクリンカーが比較的簡単に形成されることが確認された。(2) ペレット燃焼量がより少なく、空気比がより高いほど、クリンカー形成割合は減少することが確認された。(3) バイオコークスとの混焼により、クリンカーの生成が抑制される可能性が示された。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 2010年 -2011年 
    代表者 : 藤田 修; 中村 祐二; 伊東 弘行; 井田 民男; 酒井 雄人; 中原 毅朗
     
    単一のバイオマス由来高密度固形燃料を、長時間定常的に燃焼させる手段について検討した。その結果、燃料側面の過熱を防ぎながら、対向空気流を試料に供給しながら端面燃焼させることで定常的な連続燃焼が可能であることを示した。さらに、この現象を1次元のエネルギー式に基づいて解析し、この現象は層流予混合一次元火炎の消炎現象と類似の議論が可能であり、一定の条件を満たせば定常燃焼状態が存在しうることを示唆した。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 2001年 -2001年 
    代表者 : 井田 民男
     
    微視的な拡散燃焼過程の理解は,流れと燃焼反応の相互作用からなる燃焼挙動の定常性を定量化する上で重要である。微視的な拡散燃焼過程を研究するには,分子レベルでの燃焼反応による挙動と分子拡散による流れの条件との相互関連を定量的に理解することが重要となる。同時に微視的な定常拡散燃焼過程を造りだすことは,それらの条件の整合性を見出せる可能性を含んでいる。 本研究で開発されたシングル・マイクロフレームでは、分子拡散作用と燃焼反応現象との微視的な燃焼メカニズムに基づく性状を定量的に把握することができた。 次のステップとして開発されたダブル・マイクロフレームでは、異なる燃料種における微視的な燃焼過程の変化を可視化することができた。1つの興味ある現象は、アウターバーナ(OB)によって形成された半球状の水素拡散燃焼場にインナーバーナ(IB)よりアセチレン燃料を微流量を供給することにより、輝炎発光の発生制御が可能となり、水素拡散火炎の半球状の極点からのみ輝炎発光が生じ出すことが明らかとなった。 本研究では、微視的な燃焼過程を究めるために分子レベルでの拡散作用と燃焼反応が非対称かつ非定常な燃焼過程を実現できる微視的な燃焼場を造りだした。この微視的な燃焼場は、非同軸のバーナで,OBで形成された定常な拡散火炎内においてIBにより分子数千個のオーダで任意の位置から燃料が供給され形成される。結果次のような成果を得た。 1)微視的な定常拡散燃焼場において、ススの生成過程である輝炎発光がマイクロフレームの半球状の極点で発生するメカニズムは、拡散燃焼場が軸対称であることが必要条件であることが示唆された。 2)フレキシブル・ダブルマイクロフレームによって形成される非対称燃焼場では、輝炎発光像が不定位置でかつ非周期で発生することが定量的に明らかとなった。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 1998年 -1998年 
    代表者 : 井田 民男
     
    マイクロフローム(以下、MFと略す)を基礎燃焼工学的な観点から研究することは、分子拡散作用による燃焼メカニズムを理解する新しいアプローチとなり、現況の数値燃焼解析能力と相互刺激することにより、微視的な領域での燃焼メカニズムが解明されるだけでなく、新しい知見が得られる可能性を秘めている。また、MFを医用工学にまで発展させることは、MFの持つ学術的な守備範囲を広げるだけでなく、多様な火炎の活用方法を生み出す原動力となる。さらにMFの基礎燃焼特性だけでなく医用工学的な観点から観察することを試み、特に、消化器系を対象に喉内から食道・胃・腸管に至る各部位の体内でMFを燃焼させることの意義とその可能性を検討した。本報では、体内燃焼における熱工学的な活用を具体的な課題から検討するために、MFの下限レイノルズ数付近での、熱源となる火炎領域の空間状態を直接撮影法により静止カメラとCCDカメラで可視化し、必要に応じて同時撮影を試み、MFを体内で燃焼させるために、0.8x0.3x1000mmの銅パイプを製作し、水平設置されたマイクロ火炎の火炎領域の空間状態とCHラジカルの燃焼工学的な観察を行った結果を示す。 1) 消化器系(喉内・食道・胃・腸管)に挿入可能なマイクロバーナを製作し、メタン燃料によるマイクロ拡散火炎を形成できることを示した。 2) マイクロフレームの水平設置に対する火炎の空間的な状態を把握し、熱源としての火炎領域の特性をCHラジカル分布より静止カメラ,CCDカメラ直接撮影を行い、その空間特性を明らかにした。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 1996年 -1996年 
    代表者 : 井田 民男
     
    拡散火炎の本質を把握する上で、階層的に微視から巨視に至る火炎構造をとらえることは重要課題である。拡散火炎混合過程における各階層での秩序的な火炎構造をとらえかつ、そのつながりの規則を研究することは、反応を伴う拡散作用の動的燃焼システムを解明することにつながり、従来の実験結果をより深く理解でき、従来にない燃焼工学的な見地を見出す可能性を内在している。特に、微視的火炎構造の性状を研究することは、燃焼限界や燃焼範囲等の物理的燃焼特性を詳細に説明するに留まらず、分子レベルでの燃焼工学的考察を必要性の指針を含んでいる。 本研究では、Re数(Re数と略す)を構成する流体力学的因子であるバ-ナ出口直径と噴出速度に着目し、Re数を関数として定常拡散火炎が形成できる範囲を観察し、直接写真撮影法及び目視により測定した実験結果によりその燃焼特性を評価した。燃焼バ-ナは、40〜700μmの出口直径を有するマイクロバ-ナを用い、上限(吹き飛び寸前に対応する)及び下限(消炎寸前に対応に対応する)Re数を求めその火炎形状及び燃焼特性について種々検討し、特異な燃焼特性を示す拡散火炎が存在することを示した。 ここでは、主に下限レイノルズ数でのメタン燃料(CH_4)によって形成されるマイクロフレームを可視化し、幾何学的及び燃焼工学的特性を定量的に評価することにより、分子拡散作用の燃焼特性に与える影響を具体的に明らかにした。また、本研究で用いた可視化法は、燃焼領域を撮影するための直接撮影法と火炎形成領域を撮影するためのレーザ・シャドウグラフ法を用いた。さらに、通常のマイクロフレームをさらに微小並びパルス化し制御する目的のために、マイクロバ-ナによる2重管を製作し、マイクロツールとしての拡散火炎の燃焼特性を直接撮影法により可視化した。この2重マイクロフレームを開発することにより、単純バ-ナでは形成不可能な微小拡散火炎を実現でき、その燃焼特性を考察し、マイクロツールとしての実現の可能性を示した。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 1994年 -1994年 
    代表者 : 井田 民男
     
    乱流拡散火炎は、工業的に最も多く利用され、熱エネルギーの生産に多大な貢献をしているにもかかわらず、その火炎構造と燃焼工程があまりにも複雑なため、基礎的な立場から明確に理解されていない部分を数多く残している。このため合理的な燃焼法の追求がなされぬまま実用に供されている機器も数多くあり、エネルギー有効利用・環境浄化の点から改善を迫られている。本研究では、円形バ-ナを用い軸対称乱流拡散火炎を炭化水素系燃料により周囲空気流中に形成し、超高速ビデオカメラにより空間火炎混合過程の時間的な変化を可視化し理解することを目的とした。さらに、乱流拡散火炎の階層構造に着目し、その巨視〜微視的な観察スケールでの混合過程とそのつながりを理解することを目的とし、基礎的なデータと新しい知見を報告する。 巨視的観察スケールでは、瞬間火炎発光像より火炎形状を抽出し、幾何学的混合過程を定量解析するためにフラクタル解析および幾何学的固有値の変化より火炎形状の時間的変化を具体的に検討した。局所的観察スケールでは、レーザ・シート法によるラグランジュ的粒子追跡法と瞬間火炎発光像による火炎形状の抽出法の複合計測を行い、乱流拡散混合過程のパターンを周囲空気流と火炎形状の変化より可視化し運動学的観点から定量解析を試み、秩序構造の存在を示唆した。微視的観察スケールでは、周囲空気流中に添加した1粒子をラグランジュ的に追跡し、階層構造の存在を示唆した。 さらに、乱流拡散火炎構造の階層的なつながりの本質を理解するために、微視的火炎構造がどの様に局所さらに巨視的火炎構造に影響を与えているのかを知るために、高速度ビデオシステムを用い従来1点計測で用いた測定体積内をLRSにより空間的に捉え、微視的火炎構造の定量的な解析を行った結果を報告した。実験は、微視的な瞬間2次元温度分布の時系列変化を捉え、1点計測結果と比較することによりその基本的構造の特徴を抽出した。さらに、テクスチュア解析およびテクスチュア勾配解析により空間火炎構造の各領域での特徴を定量解析し、情報エントロピー解析によりその存在確率を求め、空間火炎構造のつながりについて検討した。
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業
    研究期間 : 1993年 -1994年 
    代表者 : 大竹 一友; 井田 民男; 成瀬 一郎; 吉川 典彦
     
    乱流拡散火炎は、工業的に最も多く利用され、熱エネルギーの生産に多大な貢献をしているにもかかわらず、その火炎構造と燃焼過程があまりににも複雑なため、基礎的な立場から明確に理解されていない部分を数多く残している。このため合理的な燃焼法の追求がなされぬまま実用に供されている機器も数多くあり、エネルギー有効利用・環境浄化の点から改善を迫られている。本研究では、円形バ-ナを用い軸対称乱流拡散火炎を炭化水素系燃料により周囲空気流中に形成し、超高速ビデオカメラにより空間火炎混合過程の時間的な変化を可視化し理解することを目的とした。さらに、乱流拡散火炎の階層構造に着目し、その巨視〜微視的な観察スケールでの混合過程とそのつながりを理解することを目的とし、基礎的なデータと新しい知見を報告する。 巨視的観察スケールでは、瞬間火炎発光像より火炎形状を抽出し、幾何学的混合過程を定量解析するためにフラクタル解析および幾何学的固有値の変化より火炎形状の時間的変化を具体的に検討した。局所的観察スケールでは、レーザ・シート法によるラグランジュ的粒子追跡法と瞬間火炎発光像による火炎形状の抽出法の複合計測を行い、乱流拡散混合過程のパターンを周囲空気流と火炎形状の変化より可視化し運動学的観点から定量解析を試み、秩序構造の存在を示唆した。微視的観察スケールでは、周囲空気流中に添加した1粒子をラグランジュ的に追跡し、階層構造の存在を示唆した。 さらに、乱流拡散火炎構造の階層的なつながりの本質を理解するために、微視的火炎構造がどの様に局所さらに巨視的火炎構造に影響を与えているのかを知るために、高速度ビデオシステムを用い従来1点計測で用いた測定体積内をLRSにより空間的に捉え、微視的火炎構造の定量的な解析を行った結果を報告した。実験は、微視的な瞬間2次元温度分布の時系列変化を捉え、1点計測結果と比較することによりその基本的構造の特徴を抽出した。さらに、テスクチュア解析およびテスクチュア勾配解析により空間火炎構造の各領域での特徴を定量解析し、情報エントロピー解析によりその存在確率を求め、空間火炎構造のつながりについて検討した。

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